Cainan, or Kenan, from the Hebrew name pronounced kay-nawn, was one of the recorded antediluvian patriarchs (antediluvian is a Latin word meaning before the flood; see also The Flood and How Big Was Noah's Ark?). Cainan was of the third generation after Adam, thereby making him Adam's great-grandson.
Also known as Kenan, Cainan was not the son of Cain. Cainan was a grandson of Cain's surviving brother Seth, of which there were other brothers as well, besides Abel i.e. "the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters" (Genesis 5:4 KJV). Nor was Cainan the father of the Canaanite people as some have assumed. The Canaanites originated long after the time of Cainan, from Canaan, a grandson of Noah through Noah's son Ham (Genesis 10:6,15-20). Although the names Cainan and Canaan are usually pronounced the same in English, in the original Hebrew of the Holy Scriptures they were not - Cainan was pronounced as kay-nawn, while Canaan was pronounced ken-ah-an.
The Antediluvian Patriarchs
As listed in the ancient records, Cainan was the son of Enos, and the father of Mahalaleel. Although some "Biblical scholars" dispute the accuracy, or even the veracity of the Genesis' genealogical record (how "Biblical scholars" who doubt the accuracy of the Holy Bible can call themselves "Biblical scholars" is a mystery to this writer; if they do not believe in what they profess, then they are nothing more than theological quacks and charlatans), the New Testament writers had no doubt that Genesis was entirely true and accurate. They included the same information in their genealogy of Jesus Christ (Luke 3:23-38) in which Cainan, or Kenan, is included (Luke 3:37).
From Adam (i.e. "man" - see the The Creation Of Man) to Noah:
"And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters [see also Cain's Wife]: And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died."
"And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos: And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died."
"And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan: And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died."
"And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel: And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died."
"And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared: And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died."
"And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch: And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died."
"And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah: And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years: And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him." [see What Happened To Enoch?]
"And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech: And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died."
"And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son: And he called his name Noah" (Genesis 5:4-29 KJV)
In the Book of Chronicles, Cainan is recorded as Kenan in the more concise listing of the same antediluvian patriarchs:
"Adam, Sheth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered, Henoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah" (1 Chronicles 1:1-4 KJV)
Fact Finder: How or why did the antediluvian patriarchs live to such great ages?
See Why So Long?