The political term "Caesar" originated from the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar. Some claim that the medical procedure known as a "caesarian section" originated from Julius reportedly being born in that way, however that seems unlikely since, although not unknown in ancient times, caesarian sections back then were almost always fatal to the mother. In ancient times the procedure was crudely done only as a desperate attempt to save an infant when the mother was already dead or dying - a circumstance not found with Julius Caesar since his mother Aurelia lived a healthy life for decades after his birth. The term much more likely originated from the Latin word caesus which means to have been cut. The surname Caesar was in use long before the birth of Julius Caesar.
"Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's"
After Julius Caesar was assassinated, the imperial title of Caesar was assumed by the Roman emperors who succeeded him. It was also adopted by later rulers of other nations - the German Kaiser and the Russian Tsar (or Czar) are derived from Caesar.
The Roman empire (see Ancient Empires - Rome and Daniel's Statue) rose to greatness after the Old Testament section of Bible History had been completed, so Biblical references to Caesar are found only in the New Testament:
As a general title:
"And He saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto Him, Caesar's. Then saith He unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's." (Matthew 22:20-21 KJV)
"But they cried out, Away with Him, away with Him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar." (John 19:15 KJV)
"And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren unto the rulers of the city, crying, These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also; Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus." (Acts 17:6-7 KJV)
"Then said Paul, I stand at Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest. For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar. Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? Unto Caesar shalt thou go." (Acts 25:10-12 KJV)
"And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria. And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; because he was of the house and lineage of David: To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered" (Luke 2:1-6 KJV)
"Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee [see The Herods], and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:1-3 KJV)
"And in these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch. And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar" (Acts 11:27-28 KJV)
Fact Finder: Which Caesar was reigning when Peter (see Peter's Ministry) and Paul (see Paul's Ministry) were martyred?
See Emperor Nero; see also New Testament Roman Emperors