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Seven plagues had come upon Egypt so far: waters turned to blood, frogs upon the land, gnats, flies, disease upon livestock, boils upon man and beast and a great hail storm. Then, locusts that devoured what remained of the crops and trees.
"So Moses [see also The Education Of Moses] stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and The Lord brought an east wind upon the land all that day and all that night [see also Is This How The Red Sea Parted?]; and when it was morning the east wind had brought the locusts. And the locusts came up over all the land of Egypt, and settled on the whole country of Egypt, such a dense swarm of locusts as had never been before, nor ever shall be again. For they covered the face of the whole land, so that the land was darkened, and they ate all the plants in the land and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left; not a green thing remained, neither tree nor plant of the field, through all the land of Egypt." (Exodus 10:13-15 RSV)
There were times when the Pharaoh's stubbornness weakened somewhat, but it nevertheless continued - as did the plagues. Next, darkness, "but all the people of Israel had light where they dwelt."
"Then The Lord [see YHVH, Adonai, Jehovah, LORD] said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward heaven that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness to be felt."
Exodus Chapter 11
Then, the preparation, and final warning, for the last plague - the death of the firstborn.
"The Lord said to Moses, "Yet one plague more I will bring upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence; when he lets you go, he will drive you away completely. Speak now in the hearing of the people, that they ask, every man of his neighbor and every woman of her neighbor, jewelry of silver and of gold." And The Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants and in the sight of the people.
The Pharaoh's last chance:
"Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and The Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land." (Exodus 11:10 RSV)
Exodus Chapter 12
The Passover occurred in spring, according to The Lord's calendar i.e. the calendar is God's creation, not the Israelites as a whole, or Jews in particular (see Bible Calendar and Bible Months; also Do We Have The Original Calendar?).
"The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, "This month shall be for you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year for you." (Exodus 12:1-2 RSV)
Passover and Unleavened Bread were instituted together (see the Fact Finder question below).
"Then they shall take some of the blood, and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat them. They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it. Do not eat any of it raw or boiled with water, but roasted, its head with its legs and its inner parts. And you shall let none of it remain until the morning, anything that remains until the morning you shall burn. In this manner you shall eat it: your loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste. It is The Lord's passover." (Exodus 12:7-11 RSV)
Then, the Exodus (notice that the Exodus wasn't just for the people of Israel; a "mixed multitude also went up with them" - the Exodus, like salvation, was open to anyone who would repent).
"And the people of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. A mixed multitude also went up with them, and very many cattle, both flocks and herds. And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt, for it was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any provisions.
Fact Finder: How is Passover applied to Christianity? Why is "coming out of sin" a vital part of true Christianity?