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John 18-20

Supplemental notes for the Daily Bible Study Bible Reading Plan

by Wayne Blank

John Chapter 18

Jesus' seizure by the mob (there was nothing lawful about it, so although it technically was an arrest, legally it was merely an abduction) provides plain proof that there was nothing unusual or special about Christ's appearance. Jesus had to repeatedly identify Himself, and even then it took Judas to point Him out to distinguish Him from His disciples who were standing with Him.

Kidron Valley

"18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron [i.e. Kidron Valley, shown in the photo], where was a garden [i.e. the Garden of Gethsemane], into the which he entered, and his disciples.

18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him [see Was Judas Necessary?], knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. 18:3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

18:5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth [see also Nazarene].

Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

18:6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

18:7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye?

And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way: 18:9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.

18:11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?" (John 18:1-11 KJV)

"18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, 18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year" (John 18:12-13 KJV). Annas had served as high priest during much of Jesus' human lifetime, but when Caiaphas married Annas' daughter ("he was father in law to Caiaphas"), Caiaphas was assumed to that position with Annas i.e. "Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests" (Luke 3:2 KJV). By definition, the office of "high priest," which was created to portray Christ (see What Is Jesus Christ Doing Right Now?), was supposed to be one man.

Aaron

"18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, 18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year. 18:14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people." (John 18:12-14 KJV)

Peter's first denial came exactly as prophesied. Peter was not a coward, as his defense of Christ against the mob plainly showed (see Malchus), but Peter was bewildered by Christ's apparent surrender.

"18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. 18:16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

18:17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples?

He saith, I am not.

18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself." (John 18:15-18 KJV)

The high priest's interrogation of Jesus was a mockery of justice. When Christ answered the questions with Truth, He was struck, beginning the savage torture that would continue for the next 18 hours (i.e. it was then about midnight; Christ died about 3 pm the next afternoon).

The Sanhedrin

"18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

18:20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. 18:21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

18:23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me? 18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest." (John 18:19-24 KJV)

Peter's second and third denials came exactly as Jesus said, "and immediately the cock crew."

"18:25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples?

He denied it, and said, I am not.

18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? 18:27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew." (John 18:25-27 KJV)

The Sanhedrin had no power to execute anyone; they had to get permission from their Roman masters who had invaded and occupied the land of Judah (see Ancient Empires - Rome). They therefore sent Christ to Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator, or governor, of Judea at that time.

Map Of The Roman Empire

"18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment [see The Praetorium]: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. 18:29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

18:30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law.

The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death: 18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

18:34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

18:35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then?

Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world [see Israelite Monarchy - The Messiah], that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all. 18:39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover [see Christ's Passover; listen also to the sermons Christ's Passover: The Death And Birth Of The Saviour, How To Observe Passover and Christ's Passover from our Sermons page]: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

18:40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber." (John 18:28-40 KJV)

John Chapter 19

The torture, that began with the ruling religious council of Judah, was then continued by the Romans: "19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. 19:2 And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, 19:3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands" (John 19:1-2 KJV).

Roman Soldiers

"19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. 19:2 And the soldiers platted a crown of Thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a Purple robe, 19:3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.

19:4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. 19:5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!

19:6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him.

Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.

19:7 The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God [see also Christ The Creator].

19:8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid; 19:9 And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. 19:10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?

19:11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

19:12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar [Tiberius was the Caesar at that time - a statue of Tiberius is shown in the photo].

Tiberius 19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. 19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

19:15 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him.

Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King?

The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

19:16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified." (John 19:1-16 KJV)

The Christ was then taken to the place of crucifixion, carrying the cross beam (see Crossing The T).

Crosses

"And they took Jesus, and led him away. 19:17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha: 19:18 Where they crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

19:19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS [see The King of the Jews]. 19:20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. 19:21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

19:22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

19:24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene [see The Women In Jesus Christ's Life]. 19:26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son! 19:27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home." (John 19:16-27 KJV)

The Death of Jesus happened a little after 3 pm on Nisan 14.

Passover In Egypt

"19:28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. 19:29 Now there was set a vessel full of Vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon Hyssop, and put it to his mouth. 19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost [see Giving Up The Ghost]. 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, for that sabbath day was an high day [i.e. Nisan 15; listen to the Sermon First Day of Unleavened Bread: Beginning The Journey To Salvation from our Sermons page], besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

19:32 Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. 19:33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: 19:34 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water [see also Brides From Their Sides]. 19:35 And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. 19:36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. 19:37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced." (John 19:28-37 KJV)

The Burial of Jesus was done by Joseph Of Arimathea and Nicodemus just before sunset at the end of Nisan 14 (see Three Days and Three Nights; also Sun Worship).

"19:38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus. 19:39 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought A Mixture of Myrrh and Aloes, about an hundred pound weight. 19:40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes [i.e. linen strips, not a single large cloth - see Shroud Of Turin: A Miraculous Fake] with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. 19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. 19:42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand." (John 19:38-42 KJV)

John Chapter 20

Jesus Christ rose from the dead [listen also the Sermon Christ's Passover: The Death And Birth Of The Saviour from our Sermons page] three days and three nights later, just before sunset on a Sabbath afternoon (see Sun Worship). That's why the disciples found the tomb empty on Sunday morning, long before sunrise.

The Empty Tomb

"20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene [see Mary of Magdala] early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 20:2 Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.

20:3 Peter [see also Peter's Ministry] therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. 20:4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 20:5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 20:6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 20:7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 20:8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 20:9 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead." (John 20:1-9 KJV)

Mary of Magdala was the first human witness of the resurrection.

"20:10 Then the disciples went away again unto their own home. 20:11 But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, 20:12 And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

20:13 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou?

She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. 20:14 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

20:15 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou?

She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.

20:16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary.

She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master.

20:17 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.

20:18 Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her." (John 20:10-18 KJV)

Jesus then appeared to His disciples, who hadn't quite yet come to understand what had happened (see When Their Eyes Were Opened).

"20:19 Then the same day at evening [see the Fact Finder question below], being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 20:20 And when he had so said, he showed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the Lord.

20:21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. 20:22 And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye The Holy Ghost: 20:23 Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained." (John 20:19-23 KJV)

Jesus appeared later to "doubting" Thomas.

"20:24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. 20:25 The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord.

But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.

20:26 And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. 20:27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.

20:28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.

20:29 Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.

20:30 And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: 20:31 But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name." (John 20:24-31 KJV)

Fact Finder: How are "even" and "evening" used in the Bible?
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