Habor, from the Hebrew word pronounced khaw-bor, which means united, or to join, was the name of a river and the surrounding territory in central or northern Mesopotamia (today, central or northern Iraq). The name most-likely refers to where the tributary river of Habor flowed into either the Tigris or Euphrates rivers.
At the time of the fall of The Northern Kingdom of Israel (the "lost ten tribes"), Habor was the area that the Assyrian (see Ancient Empires - Assyria) king Tilgath-pilneser took the two and one half tribes east of the Jordan (see map) and it was later also the area that Shalmaneser king of Assyria took the remainder of the northern kingdom of Israel, whose tribal lands were west of The Jordan River, in Galilee and Samaria.
"The king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan"
It was inevitable that the two and one half tribes east of the Jordan (Reuben, Gad and half of the tribe of Manasseh - see Eastern Tribal Lands) would face the earliest attack from Assyrian invaders because the Assyrians had to go through them to get to the tribes on the west side of the Jordan.
"5:23 And the children of the half tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land: they increased from Bashan unto Baalhermon and Senir, and unto Mount Hermon.
5:24 And these were the heads of the house of their fathers, even Epher, and Ishi, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valour, famous men, and heads of the house of their fathers. 5:25 And they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them.
5:26 And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day." (1 Chronicles 5:23-26 KJV)
The remaining seven and a half tribes were next (see The Galilee Captivity).
"17:1 In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years [see Kings of Israel and Judah; also Israelite Dynasties]. 17:2 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him.
17:3 Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents. 17:4 And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.
17:5 Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes." (2 Kings 17:1-6 KJV)
"18:9 And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it. 18:10 And at the end of three years they took it: even in the sixth year of Hezekiah, that is the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken. 18:11 And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes: 18:12 Because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD their God, but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, and would not hear them, nor do them." (2 Kings 18:9-12 KJV)
Fact Finder: When will "the lost ten tribes" of Israel be re-united with Judah (the "Jews")?
See The Gathering of Israel and Judah