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Manna For The Children
When the Israelites entered Egypt, they were hungry - not because they were not self-reliant working adults, but, through no fault of their own, drought caused famine. Their grain wouldn't grow and the pastures for their flocks were withered. The Israelites weren't asking for a handout from the Egyptians, only a place where they could work i.e. "47:4 They said moreover unto Pharaoh, For to sojourn in the land are we come; for thy servants have no pasture for their flocks; for the famine is sore in the land of Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen." (Genesis 47:4 KJV; see The Goshen Refugees).
The very productive Israelites were eventually viewed as an internal security threat by the Egyptians (see The Israelite Egyptians) and so were oppressed and reduced to slavery. They were thereafter no longer working for themselves, but rather for the government - which provided food for them, no different than the Israelites used to do for their sheep. In effect, the Israelites had been reduced from self-sufficient adults to dependent children.
"And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness"
With true freedom comes responsibility (freedom without responsibility is Satanic anarchy). With The Exodus, the Israelites were beginning to re-discover the self-sufficient dignity of their ancestors that had entered Egypt four centuries earlier, but they still looked to someone else to care for them. They first whined about no water (see The Waters Of Marah And Elim) and then complained about no food:
"16:1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto The Wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
As He had been doing all along, the LORD provided for them as they were being brought to the land where they would "grow up."
"16:4 Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no. 16:5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.
Note, in the above quoted verses, the preparation day for the Sabbath i.e. "16:5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily" (Exodus 16:5 KJV). The famous giving of manna to the Israelites wasn't just about providing food; it was also a test of obedience.
"16:13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. 16:14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. 16:15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was.
The Israelites were not yet arrived at Mount Sinai, where the Ten Commandments (see How To Be A True Christian - Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 3, Lesson 4, Lesson 5, Lesson 6, Lesson 7, Lesson 8, Lesson 9 and Lesson 10) would be formally given, but the Commandments of the LORD were already in effect, as they had been right from Creation (see the Fact Finder question below). "20:8 Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy" did not originate at Mount Sinai; it originated at Creation.
"16:20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.
"16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day" happened before they got to Mount Sinai.
"16:27 And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. 16:28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? 16:29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. 16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.