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The Two Kinds Of Leaven
"Leaven" may be defined as "a substance used to produce fermentation in dough." It's a natural process that is, in itself, neither good nor evil. In the Word of God however, leaven is used as an analogy for two very different things, one very good, one very evil.
The coming Kingdom of God is good. It is likened to leaven in how it will grow through the entire earth (the "leaven" in this case being the Holy Spirit):
"13:33 Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened." (Matthew 13:33 KJV)
On the other hand, leaven is also used to portray human arrogance and hypocrisy, Satanic-minded "puffed up" people who are spiritually hollow and empty inside - vain glory.
"16:6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees ... 16:12 Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees" (Matthew 16:6,12 KJV)
"Therefore let us keep the Feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness"
The Christian Days of Unleavened Bread (see the Fact Finder question below) are an integral part of Passover, so much so that the two observances are often stated as one. Observance of Passover is about recognizing Christ's sacrifice, while the Days of Unleavened Bread are about accepting His sacrifice by means of living in the way that He instructed His people to do.
"26:17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?" (Matthew 26:17 KJV)
As described in the verses quoted above, the "leaven" of the chief priests and the scribes was evil. They rejected the one who is going to bring the Kingdom of God to earth - a Kingdom that will grow until it fills all (e.g. "2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth" (Daniel 2:35 KJV; see Nebuchadnezzar's Dream)
"14:1 After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death." (Mark 14:1 KJV)
Living a truly Christian life, which includes observing all of the true Christian Holy Days (see The Holy Day Calendar) means putting out the ways of sin, while growing (not merely sitting there like a lifeless lump) toward the Kingdom that is coming to fill all the earth (see Growing In The Grace And Knowledge).
"5:6 Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? 5:7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: 5:8 Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth." (1 Corinthians 5:6-8 KJV)
Fact Finder: How are the Days of Unleavened Bread observed?