The First Nations
The usual definition of nation today is "a politically organized body of people under a single government" i.e. a country. But the original meaning of nation in Bible History was a grouping of related people, regardless of their being, or not being, united as a country. A nation was based upon the family of birth (Nativity has the same root as nation). Beginning with a single individual, a nation was/is composed of tribes, which were composed of clans, which were composed of families.
After The Flood, "nations" began from Mount Ararat in the Middle East. Mankind's birth at the time creation (see Christ The Creator) and restart after the Flood both occurred in the same area. Just as all humans are descended from "Adam" (which in Hebrew merely means man, as a species; Eve was as much "adam" as "Adam" was) and Eve, all humans today are descended from Noah and his wife through their sons Shem, Ham and Japheth, and their wives.
"After their families, in their nations"
Japheth (in Hebrew pronounced yeh-feth) means opened or expanded. The descendants of Japheth settled, at first, primarily to the north, in Asia beyond the Black and Caspian Seas.
"10:2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
10:3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
10:4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
10:5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." (Genesis 10:2-5 KJV)
Ham (in Hebrew pronounced khawm) means hot. The descendants of Ham settled toward the southwest and Africa e.g. Egypt is called "the land of Ham" (Psalm 105:23 KJV). Many of the most well-known Middle East people are descended from Ham.
"10:6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.
10:7 And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah:
and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.
10:8 And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. 10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel [see also Why "Babel"?], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [see The Plain of Shinar]. 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur [see also Asshur On The Tigris], and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 10:12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.
10:13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,
10:14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, out of whom came Philistim, and Caphtorim.
10:15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn [see also Sidon the Canaanite], and Heth [see Sons And Daughters Of Heth], 10:16 And the Jebusite [see Jebusites], and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 10:17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 10:18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite:
and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 10:19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom [see also Where Is 'Sodom' Today?], and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.
10:20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations." (Genesis 10:6-20 KJV)
Shem (in Hebrew pronounced shay-em) means name or character. Shem's descendants settled through the central area of the Middle East.
"10:21 Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber [see Hebrew], the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.
10:22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.
10:23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.
10:24 And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber.
10:25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.
10:26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 10:27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 10:28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 10:29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.
10:30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east.
10:31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." (Genesis 10:21-31 KJV)
Fact Finder: After Israel divided into two political "nations" (see Israelite Monarchy - The Division Of Israel), through which line did Jesus Christ claim His ancestry to the throne of David?
See Israelite Dynasties