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The Waters Of Sinai
After the crossing of the "sea" (the actual Hebrew Scriptures do not say "the Red sea" as many translations render it; as well, the Red Sea is far wider than the Israelites could have walked in a few hours - see The Night Crossing), the Israelites found themselves in the dry, rugged Sinai Peninsula, which as its name plainly says, is in the Sinai Peninsula (see Why Did Paul Say That Sinai Was In Arabia?). The LORD (i.e. Jesus Christ - see the Fact Finder question below) immediately provided them with clean, fresh water in the desert:
"15:22 So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. 15:23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah. 15:24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?
"What shall we drink?"
The Israelites were slow to appreciate not only what the LORD had already done for them, but all of that which He was therefore capable of doing for them. They murmured and whined at the slightest excuse. The LORD again provided all of the water that the people needed, in this case at Meribah in The Wilderness of Sin:
"17:1 And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the LORD, and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink. 17:2 Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink.
The "the water under the earth" was specifically mentioned in the Commandment against idolatry.
"20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 20:6 And showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments." (Exodus 20:4-6 KJV)
The LORD repeatedly told the Israelites that they had nothing to worry about if they obeyed Him. They chose however to ignore and reject His leadership - the reason that the Exodus became A Journey Without A Destination for the rebels.
"23:23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off. 23:24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images. 23:25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee." (Exodus 23:23-25 KJV)
Plenty of good water was also provided for the service of the Levites at the Tabernacle - as with everything else, the "washings" represented much more (see Why Through The Sea?, The Origin of Baptism and Living Waters).
"29:4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. 29:5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: 29:6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him." (Exodus 29:4-7 KJV)
Fact Finder: What incident involving desert waters cost Moses his entry into the promised land at that time?