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The Biblical "homer" is translated from the Hebrew word, pronounced coe-mer, which means a heap, as in a pile, or to bubble up, as in the rounded top shape of a pile. The term "homer" (not to be confused with the Biblical "omer" which is only handfuls - see the Fact Finder question below) is descriptive of the largest of the ancient Israelite dry measures, variously estimated to be equal to approximately 6 to 10 modern-day bushels. One of the Hebrew words for donkey, pronounced kawm-or, is based upon the same root word as the word for "homer" - some regarding the connection being that a "homer" was the maximum amount of grain that a donkey could carry.
It was "the Lord GOD" (i.e. Jesus Christ; see Christ The Creator, 'Before Abraham Was, I AM' and 'The God Of The Old Testament') who determined the system of weights and measures for the ancient Israelites.
"45:9 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Let it suffice you, O princes of Israel: remove violence [i.e. violation of God's Law - see Violence] and spoil, and execute judgment and justice, take away your exactions from my people, saith the Lord GOD.
"The measure thereof shall be after the homer"
The LORD miraculously fed the Israelites during the entire 40 years of their time in the Sinai (see The Night Crossing). The care that the LORD later gave them was for the sake of the survival of the children of the Exodus, not the adults who had rebelled against their first opportunity to enter the promised land (see Milk and Honey) and were thereafter made to wander in circles until they all died off (see A Journey Without A Destination).
The incident with quail illustrates how those adults were ignoring the LORD even while they were able to see Him. Rather than take what they needed from each day's provided supply, they slaughtered and wasted large quantities of quail ("he that gathered least gathered ten homers") that they could not eat or preserve. The wrath of the LORD came upon them not because they were hungry, but because of "the people that lusted."
"11:31 And there went forth a wind from the LORD, and brought quails from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and as it were two cubits high upon the face of the earth.
The "homer" was among the measures used to determine tithes ("27:30 And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD: it is holy unto the LORD ... 27:34 These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai." Leviticus 27:30,34 KJV) and offerings. Keep in mind that it was the Christ who commanded that it be done (see The Mount Sinai Prophecy).
"27:16 And if a man shall sanctify unto the LORD some part of a field of his possession, then thy estimation shall be according to the seed thereof: an homer of barley seed shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver. 27:17 If he sanctify his field from the year of jubilee, according to thy estimation it shall stand. 27:18 But if he sanctify his field after the jubilee, then the priest shall reckon unto him the money according to the years that remain, even unto the year of the jubilee, and it shall be abated from thy estimation. 27:19 And if he that sanctified the field will in any wise redeem it, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy estimation unto it, and it shall be assured to him. 27:20 And if he will not redeem the field, or if he have sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed any more. 27:21 But the field, when it goeth out in the jubilee, shall be holy unto the LORD, as a field devoted; the possession thereof shall be the priest's." (Leviticus 27:16-21 KJV)
One of the most stark object lessons of both Bible History and Prophecy was when the LORD ordered Hosea (see The Prophets: Hosea) to marry a woman who was both an unrepentant harlot and an adulteress - because Israel had become an unrepentant harlot and adulteress to the LORD (listen to our Sermon The Divorce and Remarriage of Jesus Christ).
"3:1 Then said the LORD unto me, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress, according to the love of the LORD toward the children of Israel, who look to other gods, and love flagons of wine. 3:2 So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver, and for an homer of barley, and an half homer of barley: 3:3 And I said unto her, Thou shalt abide for me many days; thou shalt not play the harlot, and thou shalt not be for another man: so will I also be for thee.