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The English word "castle" originated from, and as an abbreviation of, the Latin word castellum which meant a fortress (i.e. fortified). While many regard the King James Version use of "castle" in the Holy Bible as an anachronism (i.e. something from a time when it could not have existed, such as English medieval castles in ancient Israel), that is only partly correct. As a Latin word, the Romans in the New Testament era (see Ancient Empires - Rome) would have used that actual word in its Latin form. "Castles" did exist in Israel at the time that Christ was crucified.
The word "castle" is nevertheless also used by the King James Version to translate a number of other words in the Holy Scriptures. They include the Hebrew words of the Old Testament (pronounced) tee-raw, which means a wall, as those of a fortress; metz-oo-daw which means a net, or a strong place; mets-aw-daw which means a stronghold (the famous Masada is based upon that word); ar-mone which means an elevated position; mig-daw-law which means a tower; bee-rawth-neeth which means a palace. In the New Testament (keeping in mind that the Romans themselves used their own Latin word, castellum, or castle, as explained above), the Greek word pronounced par-em-bo-law means a battlefield encampment, or a barracks.
"David took the castle of Zion, which is the city of David"
As the LORD (i.e. Jesus Christ; see 'Before Abraham Was, I AM') promised to both Abraham and Hagar, their son Ishmael would also be greatly blessed: "17:20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation." (Genesis 17:20 KJV). Just as the land of Israel was commanded to exist by the LORD, so too did He command that the present-day "Arab" nations are to exist.
"25:16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations." (Genesis 25:16 KJV)
As for the land of Israel (see also Milk and Honey to understand the true Biblical meaning of that term), while the people of the land had "castles," they were no defense against the LORD when the time came for the Israelites to take possession of the land that the LORD had given to them.
"31:10 And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, and all their goodly castles, with fire." (Genesis 31:10 KJV)
The Israelites then built their own "castles" throughout the land, including at the city where Abraham dwelt and is buried, Hebron.
"6:54 Now these are their dwelling places throughout their castles in their coasts, of the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Kohathites: for theirs was the lot. 6:55 And they gave them Hebron in the land of Judah, and the suburbs thereof round about it." (1 Chronicles 6:54-55 KJV)
"11:1 Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh. 11:2 And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel.
Just as Jesus Christ had been (before Pilate, Herod, and then the thug troops who tortured Him before His Crucifixion), the apostle Paul (who, prior to his conversion by Christ on the road to Damascus, very likely was among those who abused Christ during His Crucifixion - see Was Paul Among Them?) was taken to the Roman castle in Jerusalem for the "crime" of speaking the Truth (then, as today, the world hates and fears the Truth more than anything because the present day "world" was built on a foundation of Satan's lies and the "politics of religion").
"21:33 Then the chief captain came near, and took him, and commanded him to be bound with two chains; and demanded who he was, and what he had done. 21:34 And some cried one thing, some another, among the multitude: and when he could not know the certainty for the tumult, he commanded him to be carried into the castle. 21:35 And when he came upon the stairs, so it was, that he was borne of the soldiers for the violence of the people." (Acts 21:33-35 KJV)
Fact Finder: Where is the Messiah's "castle" going to be when He returns?