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Sunday, May 1 2011

Jehoiakim Of Judah

Eliakim, from the Hebrew name pronounced ale-yaw-keem, was a son of King Josiah of Judah (see Josiah of Judah and Israelite Monarchy - The Southern Kingdom) who became king of Judah after the king of Egypt deposed Eliakim's brother Jehoahaz (see Shallum / Jehoahaz Of Judah). Eliakim was thereafter known as Jehoiakim, from the Hebrew name pronounced yeh-ho-yaw-keem. It was a time when the land of Judah was being meddled with by two powerful neighboring nations - Egypt from the west and Babylon from the east. They were the string-pullers of the eleven-year puppet reign of Jehoahaz.

"23:29 In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him. 23:30 And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead.

23:31 Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 23:32 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done. 23:33 And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold. 23:34 And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there. 23:35 And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh: he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of every one according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaohnechoh.

23:36 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zebudah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. 23:37 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done." (2 Kings 23:29-37 KJV)

"He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem"

Babylon soon became the more dominant of the two powers. For Egypt, it was the end of its imperialist age; for rising Babylon, that had overcome the Assyrian Empire in the same area (see Ancient Empires - Assyria and Ancient Empires - Babylon), it was the beginning, for "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt." Jehoiakim's time of king was within those geo-political parameters.

The Holy Scriptures

"24:1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon [see Nebuchadnezzar's Dream] came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him. 24:2 And the LORD sent against him bands of the Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon, and sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD, which he spake by his servants the prophets. 24:3 Surely at the commandment of the LORD came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, for the sins of Manasseh [see Manasseh Of Judah], according to all that he did; 24:4 And also for the innocent blood that he shed: for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; which the LORD would not pardon.

24:5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 24:6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead.

24:7 And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt." (2 Kings 24:1-7 KJV)

The prophet Jeremiah (see the Fact Finder question below) was active, as a final warning from the LORD (see 'Before Abraham Was, I AM'), in the time that Judah was going to be taken completely by Babylon. Jeremiah's ministry extended through the entire time of Jehoiakim.

"1:1 The words of Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, of the priests that were in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin: 1:2 To whom the word of the LORD came in the days of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign. 1:3 It came also in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, unto the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah the son of Josiah king of Judah, unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month." (Jeremiah 1:1-3 KJV)

Jehoiakim was a corrupt, arrogant man who brought upon himself an end fitting for a "stubborn jackass," as the LORD Himself declared that "He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem."

"22:18 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah;

They shall not lament for him, saying, Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! they shall not lament for him, saying, Ah lord! or, Ah his glory! 22:19 He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem.

22:20 Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from the passages: for all thy lovers are destroyed. 22:21 I spake unto thee in thy prosperity; but thou saidst, I will not hear. This hath been thy manner from thy youth, that thou obeyedst not my voice. 22:22 The wind shall eat up all thy pastors, and thy lovers shall go into captivity: surely then shalt thou be ashamed and confounded for all thy wickedness. 22:23 O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail!" (Jeremiah 22:18-23 KJV)

It was during the reign of Jehoiakim that the prophecy of the seventy-years exile of Judah was given to Jeremiah (see the Fact Finder question below).

The Babylonian Empire

"25:1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah [see also Kings of Israel and Judah and Israelite Dynasties], that was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; 25:2 The which Jeremiah the prophet spake unto all the people of Judah, and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, 25:3 From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, even unto this day, that is the three and twentieth year, the word of the LORD hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, rising early and speaking; but ye have not hearkened.

25:4 And the LORD hath sent unto you all his servants the prophets, rising early and sending them; but ye have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear. 25:5 They said, Turn ye again now every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD hath given unto you and to your fathers for ever and ever: 25:6 And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will do you no hurt.

25:7 Yet ye have not hearkened unto me, saith the LORD; that ye might provoke me to anger with the works of your hands to your own hurt.

25:8 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; Because ye have not heard my words, 25:9 Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations. 25:10 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle. 25:11 And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.

25:12 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon [see Ancient Empires - Persia], and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations. 25:13 And I will bring upon that land all my words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah hath prophesied against all the nations. 25:14 For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also: and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands." (Jeremiah 25:1-14 KJV)

Jehoiakim wasn't merely ignoring the warnings; he actually sought to kill the prophets that the LORD sent to deliver them. The prophet Urijah was killed by Jehoiakim i.e. they "brought him unto Jehoiakim the king; who slew him with the sword."

"26:20 And there was also a man that prophesied in the name of the LORD, Urijah the son of Shemaiah of Kirjathjearim, who prophesied against this city and against this land according to all the words of Jeremiah: 26:21 And when Jehoiakim the king, with all his mighty men, and all the princes, heard his words, the king sought to put him to death: but when Urijah heard it, he was afraid, and fled, and went into Egypt; 26:22 And Jehoiakim the king sent men into Egypt, namely, Elnathan the son of Achbor, and certain men with him into Egypt. 26:23 And they fetched forth Urijah out of Egypt, and brought him unto Jehoiakim the king; who slew him with the sword, and cast his dead body into the graves of the common people.

26:24 Nevertheless the hand of Ahikam the son of Shaphan was with Jeremiah, that they should not give him into the hand of the people to put him to death." (Jeremiah 26:20-24 KJV)

Jehoiakim's arrogance reached its peak when the LORD commanded Jeremiah to write a final warning on a scroll to Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim blasphemously burned it, thereby surely sealing his doom.

"36:1 And it came to pass in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that this word came unto Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, 36:2 Take thee a roll of a book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations, from the day I spake unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto this day. 36:3 It may be that the house of Judah will hear all the evil which I purpose to do unto them; that they may return every man from his evil way; that I may forgive their iniquity and their sin." (Jeremiah 36:1-3 KJV)

"36:21 So the king sent Jehudi to fetch the roll: and he took it out of Elishama the scribe's chamber. And Jehudi read it in the ears of the king, and in the ears of all the princes which stood beside the king. 36:22 Now the king sat in the winterhouse in the ninth month: and there was a fire on the hearth burning before him. 36:23 And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he cut it with the penknife, and cast it into the fire that was on the hearth, until all the roll was consumed in the fire that was on the hearth. 36:24 Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments, neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words." (Jeremiah 36:21-24 KJV)

"36:27 Then the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah, after that the king had burned the roll, and the words which Baruch wrote at the mouth of Jeremiah, saying, 36:28 Take thee again another roll, and write in it all the former words that were in the first roll, which Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath burned. 36:29 And thou shalt say to Jehoiakim king of Judah, Thus saith the LORD; Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land, and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? 36:30 Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. 36:31 And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; but they hearkened not." (Jeremiah 36:27-31 KJV)

It was during the reign of Jehoiakim that the prophet Daniel (see The Prophets: Daniel) was taken away to Babylon.

"1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god [see also Raiders Of The Lost Ark].

1:3 And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes [see The Royal Eunuchs]; 1:4 Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans. 1:5 And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they might stand before the king.

1:6 Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 1:7 Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abednego." (Daniel 1:1-7 KJV)

Fact Finder: What was the purpose of Jeremiah's prophetic ministry?
See The Prophets: Jeremiah and Jeremiah's Field


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This Day In History, May 1

305: The Roman emperor Diocletian abdicated together with his senior colleague Maximian; he retired to his palace at Split (in what centuries later became known as Yugoslavia).

408: Theodosius II succeeded to the throne of Constantinople.

1006: The brightest supernova (exploding star) on record was observed. At maximum light it cast shadows at night and could be seen during the day. Scribes in Europe, the Middle East and the Orient recorded its appearance.

1308: Albert I (Hapsburg), Roman emperor, 58, was killed by his nephew John of Hapsburg, and 3 others. John was thereafter known as John the Parricide (it would be a century before anyone was again named John in the Hapsburg family). Over 1,000 innocent family members of Albert's killers were executed by the Hapsburgs for the murder.

1486: Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella of Spain to fund an expedition to the "New World" (which ended up merely becoming a copy of the same old world).

1514: Niklaus Kopernig (Copernicus), Polish scientist, circulated a manuscript The Little Commentary, in which he questioned the accepted Aristotelian system and suggested a sun-centered system with a moving earth (see also No 'Flat Earth' In The Bible).

1707: Scotland, Wales and England were joined together under the name of Great Britain.

1849: The Convention of Balta Liman. Russian and Turkish (i.e. Ottoman; listen to our Sermon The Ottoman Empire) agreement concerning the government of the principalities of Moldavia and Walachia (in present-day Romania) after an uprising there in 1849.

1851: Queen Victoria opened the first Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London.

1873: David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer (of the famous "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" by Sir Henry Stanley), was found dead at Chitambo, now in Zambia.

1876: The Royal Titles Bill was passed by the British Parliament, entitling Queen Victoria to call herself Empress of India.

1908: The world's most intense rainfall on record, 2.47" in 3 minutes, at Portobelo, Panama.

1915: During the First World War (listen to our Sermon The European World Wars), the ocean liner Lusitania left New York as the German Embassy was warning anyone traveling on British ships that they did so at their own risk. It was sunk by a German submarine six days later.

1925: Cyprus officially became a British colony. It had been leased to Britain by Turkey (i.e. the Ottoman Empire; listen to our Sermon The Ottoman Empire) in 1878 and was annexed to the British Empire at the start of the First World War in 1914.

1944: The German Messerschmitt Me 262, the first combat jet, made its first flight.

1945: German radio officially announced that Adolf Hitler had died (by suicide) in Berlin the day before (see Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).

1945: High-ranking Nazi Paul Goebbels, 48, and his family, died the day after Hitler killed himself: Goebbels' 6 children were given lethal injections, and then he and his wife, at their request, were each shot twice in the back of the head by a Nazi Storm Trooper. The bodies were then doused with gasoline and set on fire.

1960: Russia shot down a U.S. high-altitude U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers. He was later exchanged for a Russian spy who had been captured in New York.

1961: Cuban leader Fidel Castro declared Cuba a socialist nation and abolished elections.

1963: Sir Winston Churchill announced his retirement from the House of Commons.

1982: British forces began the recovery of the Falkland Islands from Argentina.

1982: In Poland, 50,000 supporters of the "Solidarity" labor union demonstrated in Warsaw against military rule.

1986: Canada's first artificial heart transplant was done at the Ottawa Civic Hospital. Dr. Wilbert Keon performed the operation on Noella Leclair, 41. The implanted heart, the Jarvik-7, served as a bridge until a human heart became available on May 8.

1993: Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa died of injuries suffered in a bomb blast during a May Day procession.

1997: Tony Blair was elected Prime Minister of Britain. The Labor Party won a landslide victory over the Conservative Party of Prime Minister John Major, ending 18 years of Conservative rule.





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