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Tuesday, January 31 2012
A History Of Jerusalem: The Hasmonean Kingdom
Antiochus IV, or Antiochus Epiphanes (lived 215-164 BC), was the king of the Seleucid Empire (see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids) from about 175-164 BC. Antiochus committed the original "abomination of desolation" (see A History Of Jerusalem: Abomination Of Desolation) - an outrageous act of desecration in Jerusalem that produced three major consequences.
The first was the present-day observance of Hanukkah, by the people of Judah (see also Christ's Hanukkah), which began after the time that they purified the Temple of the desecration by Antiochus in 167 BC.
The second is that Jesus Christ (see also The Rock Of The Church) referred to the original "abomination of desolation" by Antiochus in a prophecy of someone who is going to do something very similar in the days just prior to Christ's return (see the Fact Finder question below). Antiochus was a conquering emperor, a king of other people's nations and their religion. What Antiochus did wasn't merely a malicious act of vandalism to the religion of the people of Judah; it was a "devoted" observance of his own idea of religious "truth," in the Temple of the LORD i.e. Antiochus sacrificed a pig to his own Greek god "Zeus." While doing so in the Temple of God, he assumed the position of high priest for himself. The Levitical high priest was a living prophecy of the Christ; Antiochus then made himself a living prophecy of the antichrist, hence the reason that Jesus Christ used that event, and that man, in describing the end-time antichrist.
The third consequence is that when the people of Judah rebelled against Antiochus, they were more successful than they at-first expected that they would be - they took back the Temple and purified it, which was their goal, but they also found themselves with the opportunity to drive the Seleucid military forces of Antiochus out of Jerusalem, and even a large part of Judea. Led by the "Maccabees," the people of Judah established what has become known as the Hasmonean Kingdom, or the Hasmonean Dynasty. It was a relatively autonomous area, that, while still within the Seleucid Empire, was left alone, not because they became overall more powerful than the Seleucid "superpower," but because the Seleucids regarded the cost of taking Judea back to be too high i.e. you don't necessarily have to be bigger than your enemy, just smarter and more deadly if need be.
The Hasmonean Kingdom existed for about a century, gradually growing even beyond Judea, primarily because the Seleucid Empire was then beginning to corrupt and deflate (it was eventually taken over by the Roman Empire). From 63 BC, the Hasmonean Kingdom was absorbed by the rising Roman Empire and its Herodian Dynasty in Judea (as we will cover in subsequent detailed studies in this series).
Some key events related to the Hasmonean Kingdom:
The Hasmonean Kingdom was not without the many internal intrigues and struggles common to all political and/or religious entities. It was also during the Hasmonean Kingdom era that the Pharisees grew to social (moreover than religious) prominence, in effect requiring the general population to observe the symbolic rituals that only Temple Levites, not the general public, or the Pharisees themselves, were to, or had any right to, observe. Their supposed justification may have been an overzealous extension of the purification act and meaning of Hanukkah, but they went too far - for which the Messiah rebuked them decades later:
""7:3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. 7:4 And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brazen vessels, and of tables. 7:5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands? 7:6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. 7:7 Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. 7:8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do. 7:9 And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition" (Mark 7:3-9 KJV)
The end of the Hasmonean Kingdom was brought about by the rise the Roman Empire and the "client kings" that they appointed for Judea. The Herodian Dynasty, perhaps most well-known by the infamous Herod the Great, became the new rulers of Judah. The reason that Herod wanted to kill the newborn King of the Jews is because Herod claimed that title for himself, as we will cover in detail in a subsequent study in this series.
"2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
Fact Finder: How long will the prophesied "abomination of desolation" last before Christ returns to purify the Temple, just as the Maccabees did?
This Day In History, January 31
1606: Guy Fawkes was executed for his involvement in the "Gunpowder Plot" - an attempt by English Roman Catholics to blow up the British Houses of Parliament and assassinate King James I (for whom the King James Bible was named). The treasonous traitor Fawkes was hanged, drawn, and quartered.
1620: Virginia colonist business operators requested more "orphaned apprentices" from the Virginia Company in England.
1788: Charles Edward Stuart (popularly known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" and the "Young Pretender") died in Rome at age 67. He was the leader of the Jacobite rebellion against the English (1745-46).
1839: Lord Durham's Report was published in London in response to the 1837 rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada ("Upper" and "Lower" Canada were terms based simply on the flow of the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River toward the Atlantic Ocean; "Upper Canada" was present-day southern Ontario, "Lower Canada" was southern Quebec). To prevent another "revolution in the colonies," Durham recommended government "of and by Canadians" i.e. in effect, Britain conceded to Canadians in 1839 the rights and freedoms that had been refused to the New England colonies in 1776.
1915: During the First World War (listen to our Sermon The European World Wars), Germany used poison gas on the Russians at Bolimov. On the same day in 1917, Germany announced that it was beginning a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic Ocean.
1918: In the Soviet Union, January 31 under the Julian calendar system was the last day of its use. The next day was designated February 14 under the Gregorian calendar - the dates in between were simply skipped.
1929: Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Union after losing a struggle for leadership of the country with Joseph Stalin.
1930: Britain, the U.S., France, Italy and Japan began the London Naval Conference. The purpose was to halt the arms race and prevent war. The Second World War followed only nine years later.
1943: The Battle of Stalingrad ended with the Russians victorious over Hitler's invasion army.
1950: U.S. President Harry Truman (the only man to ever order the use "weapons of mass destruction") announced that he had ordered the development of hydrogen bombs that would greatly surpass the destructive power of the U.S. atomic bombs that he used to incinerate the civilian populations of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Russia responded to Truman's increase of military power with the development of their own "H Bomb," beginning the nuclear arms race.
1953: 2,000 people were drowned when hurricane-force winds flooded the Netherlands.
1958: James van Allen discovered the solar system's radiation belt that is now named after him - the Van Allen Belts.
1968: During the Tet offensive of the Vietnam War (which was actually a civil war between the Vietnamese people whose single country had been partitioned in 1954, by the French at the end of the First Indochina War, into North and South Vietnam), a captured Vietcong soldier was summarily shot in the head on a Saigon street by the chief of South Vietnam's police, General Nguyen Ngoc Loan. The execution caused international outrage after it was seen around the world in newspapers and TV news.
1976: Ernesto Miranda, famous from the U.S. Supreme Court ruling "Miranda Rights" reading to an accused person ("You have the right to remain silent etc."), was stabbed to death in Arizona.