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Sunday, June 10 2012

The Leaders Of Israel

The origin of "Israel" occurred when the LORD (i.e. Jesus Christ; see Appearances Of The LORD God and What Does Word of God Mean To You?; also What Was The Lesson Of John 3:16?) renamed Jacob, who was the son of Isaac and the grandson of Abraham (see What Did Jesus Christ Say About Abraham?), as "Israel" (see Where Jacob Became Israel).

The Jabbok River

"46:1 And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beersheba [see The Negev Of Israel], and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac.

46:2 And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night [see also What Happened At Night?], and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I.

46:3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation: 46:4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph [see Was Her Name Zuleikha?] shall put his hand upon thine eyes.

46:5 And Jacob rose up from Beersheba: and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 46:6 And they took their cattle [see The Herds Of Abraham, Isaac And Jacob], and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob, and all his seed with him: 46:7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt." (Genesis 46:1-4 KJV)

Throughout his lifetime, Jacob / Israel was the leader of his house of Israel, the Israelites - Jacob's children and their children. When Israel entered Egypt to escape a famine (see Why Did They Go To Goshen?; also Abraham, Isaac And Jacob In Egypt), "Israel" consisted of a family of about seventy people.

"46:26 All the souls [see What Does The Bible Really Say About Your Soul?] that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six; 46:27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls [see Jacob's Blessing Of Ephraim And Manasseh]: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten." (Genesis 46:26-27 KJV)

The Israelites remained in Egypt for a little over four centuries, during which they grew into a multitude ("The children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them"). It was their eventual great numbers that caused the later Pharaoh to justifiably (sooner or later, there would have been a revolution - after four hundred years, the Israelites regarded themselves as natural-born Egyptians; just like any children of immigrants, they regarded Egypt as their country) seek ways to control them.

Unfortunately, the Pharaoh chose genocide (see The River Of Moses), rather than expulsion back to the land where their ancestors had originated (i.e. "the land of Canaan," or even Iraq and/or Syria - see The Journey From Ur Of The Chaldees and The Syrian Marriage Wells), because, while he feared them, he also did not want to lose the economic benefit, to him, of their economic bondage. The Israelites were not "slaves" in the way that many define that word now i.e. they owned houses (e.g. "12:15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel" Exodus 12:15 KJV) and they owned their own herds of cattle (e.g. "9:6 And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one" Exodus 9:6 KJV).

Egypt

"1:1 Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob. 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah [see Who Were The First Jews?], 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 1:5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.

1:6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. 1:7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them.

1:8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. 1:9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: 1:10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land." (Exodus 1:1-10 KJV)

After the death of Jacob / Israel, the growing family would have been ruled first by the sons of Israel (which increased in Egypt; see Jacob's Blessing Of Ephraim And Manasseh), each as the patriarch of their own Israelite clan, or tribe. Later however, as the family grew very large, the "elders" of families and clans were the leaders (see What Did The Elders Of Israel Do?). The Levite priesthood was not established by the LORD until after the Exodus (see The Origin Of The Levite Priesthood); at the time of the Exodus, the elders carried out the Passover sacrifice.

"3:15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God [i.e. Jesus Christ; see Appearances Of The LORD God] of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations. 3:16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt" (Exodus 3:15-16 KJV)

"12:21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover [see The Two Sabbaths Of Passover Week, Nisan 14: The Messiah's Manna and Nisan 14: The Sacrifice Of The Lamb Of God]. 12:22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." (Exodus 12:21-23 KJV)

When the time came for the Exodus, the LORD appointed Moses to be His representative to Israel. Aaron was also appointed, a little later, to perform the object-lesson prophecies of the Tabernacle (see The Church In The Wilderness and The Holy Place In History And Prophecy; also The Temple Vessel Prophecies Today).

The Sinai Peninsula

"3:1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian [see Moses Of Midian]: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb [see The Stones Of Mount Sinai]. 3:2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. 3:3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

3:4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses.

And he said, Here am I.

3:5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. 3:6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

3:7 And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites [see A History Of Jerusalem: Jebus Of Canaan]. 3:9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. 3:10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt." (Exodus 3:1-10 KJV)

After the death of Moses, the LORD appointed Joshua as the leader of Israel, along with Eleazar, the son of Aaron as the High Priest. The Israelites entered the promised land under Joshua and Eleazar (see From Moses And Aaron To Joshua and Eleazar).

Eleazar

"20:27 And Moses did as the LORD commanded: and they went up into mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation. 20:28 And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount: and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mount. 20:29 And when all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead, they mourned for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel." (Numbers 20:27-29 KJV)

"27:12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Get thee up into this mount Abarim, and see the land which I have given unto the children of Israel. 27:13 And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered. 27:14 For ye rebelled against my commandment in the desert of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water before their eyes: that is the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.

27:15 And Moses spake unto the LORD, saying, 27:16 Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, 27:17 Which may go out before them, and which may go in before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.

27:18 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him; 27:19 And set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight. 27:20 And thou shalt put some of thine honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient. 27:21 And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before the LORD: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.

27:22 And Moses did as the LORD commanded him: and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation: 27:23 And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses." (Numbers 27:12-23 KJV)

After the death of Joshua, the era of the Judges began. It lasted for two or three centuries, during which Israel was led, in whole or in part, mostly by "deliverer" warriors. Among the most famous of them was Samson, with his wars against the Philistines ("Palestinian" is merely a variant pronunciation of "Philistine") of Gaza (see Delilah: Why The Fatal Attraction?).

Gaza

"2:7 And the people served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for Israel.

2:8 And Joshua, the son of Nun, the servant of the LORD, died, being an hundred and ten years old. 2:9 And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnathheres, in the mount of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash.

2:10 And also all that generation were gathered unto their fathers: and there arose another generation after them, which knew not the LORD, nor yet the works which he had done for Israel. 2:11 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim: 2:12 And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt [i.e. they were unfaithful to Jesus Christ; see Appearances Of The LORD God], and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themselves unto them, and provoked the LORD to anger. 2:13 And they forsook the LORD, and served Baal and Ashtaroth. 2:14 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies. 2:15 Whithersoever they went out, the hand of the LORD was against them for evil, as the LORD had said, and as the LORD had sworn unto them: and they were greatly distressed.

2:16 Nevertheless the LORD raised up judges, which delivered them out of the hand of those that spoiled them. 2:17 And yet they would not hearken unto their judges, but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them: they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD; but they did not so. 2:18 And when the LORD raised them up judges, then the LORD was with the judge, and delivered them out of the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge: for it repented the LORD because of their groanings by reason of them that oppressed them and vexed them. 2:19 And it came to pass, when the judge was dead, that they returned, and corrupted themselves more than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them, and to bow down unto them; they ceased not from their own doings, nor from their stubborn way." (Judges 2:7-19 KJV)

The prophet Samuel (see Hannah's Dedication) is generally regarded as the last of the Judges; he was contemporary with the latter part of the Book of Ruth, when David, the son of Jesse of Bethlehem (see Jesse The Bethlehemite), was born (see The Messianic Role Of Naomi, Ruth And Boaz). When Samuel's time of passing was nearing, the people demanded a king "like the nations around us." The LORD permitted it, as a lesson for what happens when humans replace the LORD with a mere human leader who is not himself a follower of the LORD: "We will have a king over us; That we also may be like all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles."

Hannah's Dedication Of Samuel

"8:1 And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges over Israel. 8:2 Now the name of his firstborn was Joel; and the name of his second, Abiah: they were judges in Beersheba. 8:3 And his sons walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment.

8:4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah, 8:5 And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations.

8:6 But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto the LORD. 8:7 And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee. 8:9 Now therefore hearken unto their voice: howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and show them the manner of the king that shall reign over them.

8:10 And Samuel told all the words of the LORD unto the people that asked of him a king. 8:11 And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. 8:12 And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments of his chariots. 8:13 And he will take your daughters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. 8:14 And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants. 8:15 And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants. 8:16 And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work. 8:17 He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his servants. 8:18 And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the LORD will not hear you in that day.

8:19 Nevertheless the people refused to obey the voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay; but we will have a king over us; 8:20 That we also may be like all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles." (1 Samuel 8:1-20 KJV)

Israel's first human king was Saul - an apparently brave man in battle, but an unstable and unwise king.

David and Saul

"11:14 Then said Samuel to the people, Come, and let us go to Gilgal, and renew the kingdom there. 11:15 And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Saul king before the LORD in Gilgal; and there they sacrificed sacrifices of peace offerings before the LORD; and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly." (1 Samuel 11:14-15 KJV)

"13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever. 13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee." (1 Samuel 13:13-14 KJV)

Saul was replaced by David, which resulted in the Civil War (see The Civil War Kings).

"16:1 And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons." (1 Samuel 16:1 KJV)

"16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah." (1 Samuel 16:13 KJV)

After the death of David, the LORD divided the united kingdom of Israel into two separate kingdoms because of the foolish idolatry of David's son and successor King Solomon (see A History Of Jerusalem: The Glory Of Solomon). Jerusalem thereafter became and remained the capital of "Judah" only (see A History Of Jerusalem: The Capital Of Judah). The division was brought about, exactly as the LORD declared, in the time of Solomon's arrogant and adolescent-minded (which in most cases is the same - child-minded people, people who need a diaper for the minds, tend to be selfish/arrogant, while adults have learned to put baby ways behind them and no longer are psychologically incontinent) son Rehoboam (see Rehoboam's Answer).

The Division of The Kingdom under Rehoboam

"11:9 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the LORD God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice, 11:10 And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the LORD commanded. 11:11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant. 11:12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father's sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. 11:13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen." (1 Kings 11:9-13 KJV)

"12:12 So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day. 12:13 And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him; 12:14 And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. 12:15 Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.

12:16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents.

12:17 But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them." (1 Kings 12:12-17 KJV)

The northern kingdom of "Israel" (the northern ten tribes; see Where Is The Messiah's Royal Line? and No Levites In The Lost Ten Tribes?) lasted for about three centuries, until 721 BC, before the LORD had them conquered and taken into exile because of their gross idolatry (see The Galilee Captivity).

"17:5 Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

17:7 For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods, 17:8 And walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the LORD cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made. 17:9 And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city. 17:10 And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree: 17:11 And there they burnt incense in all the high places, as did the heathen whom the LORD carried away before them; and wrought wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger: 17:12 For they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them, Ye shall not do this thing." (2 Kings 17:5-12 KJV)

The southern kingdom of "Judah" was also conquered and taken into exile, over a century later, by 586 BC, for the same reason as the LORD had the northern kingdom obliterated. The Temple of Solomon was destroyed at that time.

Exile

"36:15 And the LORD God of their fathers sent to them by his messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because he had compassion on his people, and on his dwelling place: 36:16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against his people, till there was no remedy. 36:17 Therefore he brought upon them the king of the Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped for age: he gave them all into his hand. 36:18 And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon. 36:19 And they burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof.

36:20 And them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia: 36:21 To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years." (2 Chronicles 36:15-21 KJV)

The difference between "Israel" and "Judah" is that, while "Israel" ("the lost ten tribes") haven't yet returned, the people of the southern kingdom of "Judah" were allowed to return, in the time of, and under the leadership of, Ezra and Nehemiah (see A History Of Jerusalem: Ezra And Nehemiah), for the purpose of the coming of the Messiah in due time. Their descendants became the "Jews" ("Jew" is an abbreviation of Judah) of today.

"1:1 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia [see Iran's Greatest Leader Was Pro-Zionist], that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying,

1:2 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. 1:3 Who is there among you of all his people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem. 1:4 And whosoever remaineth in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill offering for the house of God that is in Jerusalem." (Ezra 1:1-4 KJV)

Fact Finder: (a) What does a righteous leader do? (b) What does an evil leader do?
(a) See What Do Leaders Do?
(b) See The Messiah's Warning About Christian Charlatans


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This Day In History, June 10

323 BC: Alexander the Great, Macedonian king, died at age 33 (see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids).

1190: During the Third Crusade (see Constantine's Crusades In History And Prophecy), Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading his army to Jerusalem.

1285: King Philip III of Spain was succeeded by Philip IV.

1307: Robert the Bruce, Scottish king fought an English attacking force of cavalry under Aylmer de Valence at the battle of Louden Hill in Ayrshire.

1503: Christopher Columbus discovered the Cayman Islands.

1610: The first Dutch settlers arrived on the wilderness island that is known today as Manhattan.

1655: Jamaica was taken by the British after being held by the Spanish for 161 years.

1692: During the Salem, Massachusetts witch trials, Bridget Bishop was hanged at Gallows Hill for "certain Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries."

1774: King Louis XV of France died of smallpox. He became king at the age of five on the death of his great-grandfather, Louis XIV.

1791: The British Parliament passed the Constitutional Act following the arrival in Canada of 10,000 more Loyalist refugees from the revolution of the New England colonies (most of the Loyalists were hard-working, conservative people who had been successful in their businesses, professions or trades in New England). The Act divided Canada into two provinces, Upper Canada with a capital at Newark (Niagara-on-the-lake, Ontario) and Lower Canada with a capital at Quebec City ("Upper" and "Lower" Canada were geographic terms simply based on the flow of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River toward the Atlantic Ocean).

1794: Elizabeth, the sister of French King Louis XVI, was beheaded.

1796: Napoleon's Army of Italy defeated the Austrians under Baron Beaulieu at the Battle of Lodi, southeast of Milan. Over 2,000 Austrians were killed or wounded.

1798: British explorer George Vancouver died. He sailed with Captain James Cook to Australia and New Zealand and to the west coast of North America where Vancouver Island and Vancouver B.C. are named after him.

1809: Pope Pius VII excommunicated Napoleon for his decree to annex the Papal States as part of the French Empire.

1857: The Seepoys of India revolted against the British rule.

1871: France and Germany signed a peace treaty in Frankfurt by which France ceded Alsace-Lorraine.

1898: During the Spanish-U.S. War, U.S. Marines invaded Cuba.

1933: Nazis in Berlin burned books by Jewish authors, including those by Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein (see also Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).

1940: Winston Churchill took over as British Prime Minister after the resignation of Neville Chamberlain (see also A History Of Jerusalem: The British Mandate).

1940: Germany invaded Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium.

1941: Nazi government member Rudolf Hess flew a Messerschmitt fighter from Augsburg, Germany and parachuted out near Glasgow, Scotland, with his unauthorized "offer of peace" with Britain. He was imprisoned for the rest of his life.

1967: Day 6 of the "6 Day War." At the end of the conflict, Israeli casualties: 759 killed, about 1,500 wounded, 40 aircraft, 80 tanks. Arab casualties: 30,000 killed and wounded, over 450 aircraft, 1,000 tanks destroyed or captured. Within the newly captured territories, Israel also found itself with over 1,000,000 new Arab "subjects": 670,000 in the West Bank and Jerusalem, 356,000 in the Gaza Strip, 33,000 in Sinai, and 6,000 in the Golan Heights (see A History Of Jerusalem: War And Peace).

1989: The official opening of Skydome in Toronto.

2002: The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans was accomplished, in the United Kingdom.





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Copyright © Wayne Blank