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Friday, June 22 2012

A Biography Of Abraham: Sarah

Studies in this series of A Biography Of Abraham:
1. The Genealogy Of Abram 2. From Ur To Canaan 3. The Battles Of Sodom 4. Hagar And Ishmael
5. Isaac 6. Sarah 7. Mamre in Hebron 8. Abrahamic Religions


"She is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife"

Sarai, who the LORD later renamed as Sarah, is first recorded in the Scriptures as the wife of Abram, who the LORD later renamed as Abraham (see Abram and Sarai). Although they made the family journey together from Ur to Haran, and then to the land of Canaan, it's possible that they would have both made the journey together even if they weren't married. As we will read, Abraham later stated that "She is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother."

A Bedouin Woman

"11:27 Now these are the generations of Terah [see A Biography Of Abraham: The Genealogy Of Abram]:

Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot. 11:28 And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees [see A Biography Of Abraham: From Ur To Canaan]. 11:29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah. 11:30 But Sarai was barren; she had no child.

11:31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.

11:32 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran." (Genesis 11:27-32 KJV)

Part of the family remained in Syria, in which nearly all of the first Israelite matriarchs (Rebekah, Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah) were born (see The Syrian Marriage Wells and Mothers Of Israel), while Abram and Sarai, and their then fatherless nephew Lot continued on to the land of Canaan.

"12:1 Now the LORD [see Appearances Of The LORD God] had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee:

12:2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.

12:4 So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. 12:5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." (Genesis 12:1-5 KJV)

Abram and Sarai journeyed the entire length of what would later become the land of Israel (named after their future grandson Jacob; see Where Jacob Became Israel). They stopped in the south (see The Negev Of Israel), where they would remain for the rest of their lives.

Egypt

"12:6 And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land. 12:7 And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land [see Abraham's Seed: From The Nile To The Euphrates]: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.

12:8 And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD. 12:9 And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south." (Genesis 12:6-9 KJV)

As happened to the Israelites later, there was a famine in the land, so Abram and Sarai "went down into Egypt to sojourn there." It was during that time that the first of the famous "thou art my sister" incidents happened.

"12:10 And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land. 12:11 And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon: 12:12 Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they shall say, This is his wife: and they will kill me, but they will save thee alive. 12:13 Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister: that it may be well with me for thy sake; and my soul shall live because of thee.

12:14 And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair. 12:15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house. 12:16 And he entreated Abram well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and menservants, and maidservants, and she asses, and camels [see Camel Trains].

12:17 And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram's wife. 12:18 And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife? 12:19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister? so I might have taken her to me to wife: now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way. 12:20 And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had." (Genesis 12:10-20 KJV)

Abram and Sarai had been married for a long time, but had no children of their own. After ten more years in the land of Canaan, Sarai sought to start a family through her Egyptian maidservant Hagar. It was not merely a "surrogate mother" or concubine arrangement. Sarai, as legally permitted by custom, "gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife" (see A Biography Of Abraham: Hagar And Ishmael).

Sarah Leading Hagar to Abraham

"16:1 Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. 16:2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.

16:3 And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. 16:4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.

16:5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.

16:6 But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.

16:7 And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. 16:8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. 16:9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 16:10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. 16:11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction." (Genesis 16:1-11 KJV)

The LORD had not forsaken Sarai; He had kept her from having children until such time that the purpose of a child of Sarai had arrived. Nevertheless, the LORD made Abram and Sarai aware that they would have an actual child of their own, apart from the other children that Abraham would have (see Abraham's Seed: From The Nile To The Euphrates).

"17:15 And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. 17:16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her.

17:17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear? 17:18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!

17:19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. 17:20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. 17:21 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. 17:22 And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.

17:23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him. 17:24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 17:25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 17:26 In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. 17:27 And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him." (Genesis 17:15-27 KJV)

"Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him"

The LORD later reiterated his promise to Sarah, even with the name of the child that would be born - Isaac.

The Camp Of Abraham

"18:9 And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said, Behold, in the tent.

18:10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door, which was behind him.

18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women. 18:12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?

18:13 And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old? 18:14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son." (Genesis 18:9-14 KJV)

It was during that time that the second incident of "she is my sister" occurred.

"20:1 And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. 20:2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.

20:3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is a man's wife.

20:4 But Abimelech had not come near her: and he said, Lord, wilt thou slay also a righteous nation? 20:5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and she, even she herself said, He is my brother: in the integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this.

20:6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart; for I also withheld thee from sinning against me: therefore suffered I thee not to touch her. 20:7 Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine." (Genesis 20:1-7 KJV)

It was from that occurrence that we are provided with the knowledge that Sarai was indeed Abraham's half sister, "the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife."

Gerar

"20:8 Therefore Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears: and the men were sore afraid. 20:9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? and what have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done. 20:10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?

20:11 And Abraham said, Because I thought, Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife's sake. 20:12 And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife. 20:13 And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is thy kindness which thou shalt show unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother.

20:14 And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and womenservants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife. 20:15 And Abimelech said, Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee.

20:16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to thee a covering of the eyes, unto all that are with thee, and with all other: thus she was reproved.

20:17 So Abraham prayed unto God: and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bare children. 20:18 For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham's wife." (Genesis 2:8-18 KJV)

Exactly as promised by the LORD, Sarah became the mother of Isaac (see A Biography Of Abraham: Isaac).

Bedouin Mother And Child

"21:1 And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. 21:2 For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. 21:3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. 21:4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him. 21:5 And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him.

21:6 And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me. 21:7 And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age." (Genesis 21:1-7 KJV)

It had been Sarah who arranged for the marriage of Abraham and Hagar; it was Sarah who also arranged for Hagar's expulsion from the family (see A Biography Of Abraham: Hagar And Ishmael).

"21:8 And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned. 21:9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. 21:10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.

21:11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son. 21:12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. 21:13 And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

21:14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba." (Genesis 21:8-14 KJV)

Although the Scriptures say nothing, it is most unlikely that Sarah was aware of the purpose of the journey that Abraham made - to sacrifice Sarah's son Isaac. Or, if she was aware of it, she would have been of the same belief as Abraham that Isaac would be resurrected and return home alive. Notice that Abraham told the men who accompanied him that "I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you." Abraham told them that he and Isaac would both return from the sacrifice. We know that is what Abraham was thinking, as recorded in the Book of Hebrews: "11:17 By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son. 11:18 Of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall thy seed be called: 11:19 Accounting that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he received him in a figure." (Hebrews 11:17-19 KJV).

The Sacrifice Of Isaac

"22:1 And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am.

22:2 And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah [see A History Of Jerusalem: Melchizedek's Salem]; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.

22:3 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. 22:4 Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. 22:5 And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you.

22:6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together. 22:7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son.

And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?

22:8 And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together.

22:9 And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. 22:10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. 22:11 And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I.

22:12 And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me." (Genesis 22:1-12 KJV)

"There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah"

Sarah died at age 127, when Isaac was about age 36.

The Tomb Of Sarah

"23:1 And Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the life of Sarah. 23:2 And Sarah died in Kirjatharba; the same is Hebron [see also Why Bethlehem, Hebron And Jerusalem?] in the land of Canaan: and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.

23:3 And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, 23:4 I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a buryingplace with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight.

23:5 And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, 23:6 Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.

23:7 And Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, even to the children of Heth. 23:8 And he communed with them, saying, If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight; hear me, and entreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar, 23:9 That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for as much money as it is worth he shall give it me for a possession of a buryingplace amongst you.

23:10 And Ephron dwelt among the children of Heth: and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the audience of the children of Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, 23:11 Nay, my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I it thee: bury thy dead.

23:12 And Abraham bowed down himself before the people of the land. 23:13 And he spake unto Ephron in the audience of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give it, I pray thee, hear me: I will give thee money for the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.

23:14 And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, 23:15 My lord, hearken unto me: the land is worth four hundred shekels of silver; what is that betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead.

23:16 And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant.

23:17 And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure 23:18 Unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city. 23:19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre: the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. 23:20 And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a buryingplace by the sons of Heth." (Genesis 23:1-20 KJV)

The tomb at Hebron, that Abraham purchased for the burial of Sarah, became a family burial tomb, as Jacob / Israel stated, as he gave instructions for his own burial there.

Hebron

"49:29 And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people: bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 49:30 In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a buryingplace. 49:31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah. 49:32 The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the children of Heth.

49:33 And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people." (Genesis 49:29-33 KJV)

Abraham is commonly known as the father of the faithful, but both Abraham and Sarah are stated i.e. "Hearken to me, ye that follow after righteousness ... Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you."

"51:1 Hearken to me, ye that follow after righteousness, ye that seek the LORD: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged. 51:2 Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you: for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him. 51:3 For the LORD shall comfort Zion: he will comfort all her waste places; and he will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the LORD; joy and gladness shall be found therein, thanksgiving, and the voice of melody." (Isaiah 51:1-3 KJV)

While Sarah became the mother of Abraham's Messianic line, the reality that both Abraham and Sarah were "gentiles" fulfills the requirement that the Messiah is the Savior of everyone who obeys Him (see What Did The Messiah Say About Gentiles?).

"9:6 Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel: 9:7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. 9:8 That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed. 9:9 For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sarah shall have a son." (Romans 9:6-9 KJV)

Fact Finder: Why won't there be any marriage in the Kingdom of God?
See From Husbands and Wives To Brothers and Sisters and Conceived Again


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This Day In History, June 22

217 BC: The Battle of Raphia. Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt (see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids) defeated Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom (a later Seleucid king committed the original "abomination of desolation" of the Temple in Jerusalem; see A History Of Jerusalem: Abomination Of Desolation).

168 BC: The Battle of Pydna. Roman (see A History Of Jerusalem: Pompey And The Caesars) forces under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeated and captured Macedonian (see Ancient Empires - Greece) King Perseus at the end of the Third Macedonian War.

1535: A month after the Pope had made him a cardinal, John Fisher was executed at Tower Hill in London after refusing to recognize King Henry VIII as supreme head of the English Church.

1559: Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book was issued. During her 45-year reign, Elizabeth I rejected the Catholic faith, adopting instead the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church.

1593: The Battle of Sisak. Church of Rome "Christian" troops (see A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad and listen to our Sermon Constantine's Papacy) defeated the Ottoman Turks (listen to our Sermon The Ottoman Empire).

1633: The Vatican's "Holy Office" in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to withdraw his correct scientific teaching that the earth orbits the sun. The (sun-worshipping) Church of Rome taught that the Sun "is the center of the Universe" (see Why Observe The True Sabbath? to understand how veneration of the sun is still found in many of the false teachings of the Church of Rome e.g. "sun day," the "halo," and a "sun rise" resurrection).

1675: The Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in England by Charles II.

1772: Slavery was outlawed in England.

1774: The Quebec Act was passed by the British Parliament. It established French civil law and the British system of criminal law in Quebec. It also enlarged Quebec's boundaries to include Labrador, Iles de la Madelaine and the Indian territory south of the Great Lakes between the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers on the west. The Act was replaced by the Constitutional Act in 1791.

1813: During the War of 1812 (1812-1814), after overhearing a U.S. invasion force's plan for a further surprise attack on Ontario (they entered Secord's house where she was tending her husband who had been wounded in an earlier battle), Laura Secord (born in Massachusetts in 1775, her family moved to Canada after the colonial revolution there) set out on a 20 mile trek to warn British commander James FitzGibbon (Laura Secord became a "Paul Revere" to the history of Canada). The invasion was repelled at the Battle of Beaver Dams.

1815: Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated for the second and last time after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

1870: Scholars began translation work on the English Revised Version of the Bible. Released in 1881, the ERV became the textual basis for the American Standard Version (ASV), first published in the United States in 1901.

1911: King George V and Queen Mary were crowned in Westminster Abbey.

1933: Adolf Hitler banned all political parties in Germany other than the Nazis (see Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).

1940: 8 days after German troops entered Paris, France signed an armistice in the same railway coach in Compiegne where Germany surrendered on November 11 1918.

1941: Adolf Hitler's "Operation Barbarossa" began when over 150 German army divisions (3,000,000 troops and 3,300 tanks) invaded Russia across a 1,800-mile front between the Baltic and the Black Seas. It was, and is, the largest invasion of another country in history (listen to our Sermon The European World Wars).

1976: Canada abolished the death penalty, thereby joining other nations that sentence murderers to life.

1985: A terrorist bomb brought down Air India flight 182 off the coast of Ireland, killing 329 people, including 280 Canadians of India origin.

1990: The U.S. "Checkpoint Charlie" was removed during demolition of the Berlin Wall.

2009: Acknowledging the new age of digital photography, the Eastman Kodak Company announced that it was discontinuing Kodachrome Color Film after 74 years.





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