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Thursday, August 2 2012
Israel In History and Prophecy: Israel and Judah
While all Jews are Israelites, not all Israelites are Jews
"Israel" began as a man named Jacob, who was a grandson of Abraham (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Roots and Branches). The LORD (see Who Is The LORD?) changed Jacob's name to "Israel" (see Where Jacob Became Israel).
"32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." (Genesis 32:28 KJV)
Israel had twelve sons and a daughter from four wives and concubines (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Jacob's Family). Israel later adopted Joseph's two sons, thereby making those two grandsons into sons - tribal patriarchs equal with their father and uncles.
"35:23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun: 35:24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin: 35:25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali: 35:26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padanaram [see The Syrian Marriage Wells]." (Genesis 35:23-36 KJV)
To escape a drought, Israel and his family went to Egypt (see Why Did They Go To Goshen?); at that time, Israel's family numbered only about seventy people. When their descendants left, four centuries later in the Exodus, they counted in the millions i.e. military age males alone totalled over 600,000 men.
"46:26 All the souls [see also What Does The Bible Really Say About Your Soul?] that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six; 46:27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten." (Genesis 46:26-27 KJV)
From the sons of Israel came the tribes of Israel e.g. from Dan came the Danites, from Levi came the Levites (see also The Origin Of The Levite Priesthood), from Benjamin came the Benjamites, from Judah came the "Jews" (an abbreviated form of Judah). Do you notice that the Jews are only one of the tribes of Israel? That is a key understanding to Bible history and prophecy - while all Jews are Israelites, not all Israelites are Jews (see Who Were The First Jews?).
"I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen"
After the Civil War (see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Civil War), the king of Israel was of the tribe of Judah - David, a Jew of Bethlehem. Notice how, before that, during the Civil War, the tribe of Judah, under David, fought the rest of Israel, under Saul. Ironically, the division of Israel into Israel and Judah, after (and because of the corrupt reign of Solomon, as we will read) the time of Solomon was the same as it had been when David had fought the Civil War. Israel and Judah became united into Israel under David; Israel became divided (again) into Israel and Judah after the reign of Solomon.
"2:10 Ishbosheth Saul's son was forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and reigned two years. But the house of Judah followed David. 2:11 And the time that David was king in Hebron over the house of Judah was seven years and six months." (2 Samuel 2:10-11 KJV)
The reason for the division of Israel was Solomon's gross idolatry. The LORD caused Israel to become "Israel" and "Judah."
"11:1 But king Solomon [see Israel In History and Prophecy: Solomon] loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; 11:2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love. 11:3 And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart. 11:4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father. 11:5 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. 11:6 And Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father.
"Israel rebelled against the house of David ... there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only"
As the LORD declared that He would do, Israel was divided into Israel and Judah in the time of Solomon's son, Rehoboam.
"12:1 And Rehoboam [see Rehoboam's Answer] went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king. 12:2 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;) 12:3 That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying, 12:4 Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.
Israel and Judah were never again united. As we will cover in coming studies, Israel and Judah were separate kingdoms, each with their own kings (see Kings of Israel and Judah) after the division - and sometimes even fought wars against each other. Israel and Judah will not be united until after the return of the Messiah (see The Gathering of Israel and Judah).
"12:12 So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day. 12:13 And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him; 12:14 And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. 12:15 Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
Fact Finder: Where was the Messiah's Royal Line established?
This Day In History, August 2
338 BC: The Macedonian army under Philip II (the father of Alexander the Great; see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids and Alexander The Great In Prophecy) defeated forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, thereby establishing Macedonian hegemony ("the political and military domination of one country over its allies" i.e. an emperor) in Greece and the Aegean.
216 BC: The Battle of Cannae during the Second Punic War; Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal defeated a numerically-superior Roman army under command of consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro.
47 BC: Julius Caesar defeated Pharnaces at Zela in Syria and declared his famous "veni, vidi, vici" i.e. "I came, I saw, I conquered" (see The Politics Of Rome and A History Of Jerusalem: Pompey And The Caesars).
1100: King William II of England, son of William the Conqueror, was killed by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest.
1492: Jews were expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (King Henry VIII of England became their son-in-law when he married their daughter, Catherine of Aragon; Henry's divorce from her triggered the split of England from the Church of Rome). Ironically, another Jew (through at least one of his parents) was just then making his first voyage of discovery to the New World, in the employ of that same king and queen. His name was Christopher Columbus.
1552: The Treaty of Passau revoked the Augsburg Interim of 1548 and gave religious freedom to Lutherans in Germany.
1589: During France's religious war, King Henry III of France was assassinated at St. Cloud by a monk who stabbed the king.
1610: While searching for a Northwest Passage, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the bay that is today named after him - Hudson Bay. Due to the vast size of the bay, Hudson at first thought that he had reached the Pacific Ocean as he was attempting to do.
1718: The Quadruple Alliance was formed by Britain, the Netherlands, France and the Holy Roman Empire against Spain.
1802: Napoleon was proclaimed "Consul for Life" by the French Senate after a plebiscite from the French people.
1832: Troops under General Henry Atkinson massacred Sauk Indian men, women and children who were followers of Black Hawk at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin. To prevent further slaughter, Black Hawk himself surrendered 3 weeks later, bringing the Black Hawk War to an end.
1897: During the Anglo-Afghan wars (of that time), the Siege of Malakand ended when a relief column was able to reach the British garrison in the Malakand states, adjacent to India's North West Frontier Province.
1914: Germany invaded Luxembourg. German emperor Wilhelm II then delivered a 12-hour ultimatum to King Albert I of Belgium: German troops must be given free passage through Belgium on their way to invade France. King Albert refused, citing the 1839 Treaty of London where Britain, Austria, Prussia, France and Russia agreed that Belgium should form an independent and permanently neutral state. The next day, Germany declared war on France and invaded Belgium (listen to our Sermon The European World Wars).
1917: Royal Navy officer E.H. Dunning became the first pilot to land on the deck of a moving ship. He landed a Sopwith Pup on the HMS Furious.
1922: A typhoon struck Shantou, China; over 50,000 people were killed.
1932: The positron (an antiparticle of the electron) was discovered by Carl D. Anderson.
1934: Adolf Hitler declared himself Fuehrer ("Leader," according to the present world's idea of what "leading" means) of Germany upon the death of President Hindenberg (see Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).
1939: Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, urging him to begin development of atomic weapons before Germany (Nazi Germany was already doing research work).
1964: The Gulf of Tonkin incident. North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fired on the U.S. destroyers Maddox and Turner Joy off the coast of Vietnam. Later eyewitness accounts claim that the incident never really happened, that the ships were merely in close proximity in Vietnamese territorial waters (which gave the Vietnamese ships every right to be there), but was either exaggerated or provoked by Lyndon Johnson as a pretext to escalate U.S. involvement in the Vietnam civil war (Vietnam had been divided into north and south by colonial France in the 1950s).
1958: King Hussein of Jordan dissolved the "Arab Union" between Jordan and Iraq which had been formed February 14 of that year.
1968: An earthquake struck Casiguran, Aurora, Philippines, killing more than 270 people.
1989: Trade restrictions between Britain and Argentina were lifted for the first time since the 1982 Falklands war.
1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait, leading to the "Gulf War" (not to be confused with the later invasion of Iraq by George W. Bush in his hunt for non-existent "weapons of mass destruction").