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Thursday, August 9 2012

Israel In History and Prophecy: Jews

Studies in this complete series of Israel In History and Prophecy:
1. Roots and Branches 2. Jacob's Family 3. Moses 4. The Exodus 5. Passover
6. Law Of The LORD 7. The Sinai Journey 8. Joshua 9. The Judges 10. Samuel
11. Saul and David 12. The Civil War 13. Jerusalem 14. Zion 15. King David
16. Solomon 17. The Tabernacle 18. The Temple 19. Israel and Judah 20. The Lost Ten Tribes
21. Kingdom Of Judah 22. Back To Babylon 23. The Prophets 24. Babylon and Persia 25. The Return Of Judah
26. Jews 27. Judaism 28. Purim 29. Hanukkah 30. Hasmonean Judea
31. Roman Judea 32. Herod 33. The Messiah 34. The Zealots 35. Aelia Capitolina
36. Rome and Islam 37. Balfour Declaration 38. Israel Of Judah 39. The New Covenant 40. Alpha and Omega


The Children Of Judah

A definition of "Judaism," from the 2012 online Encyclopædia Britannica:

"Judaism, the religion of the Jews. It is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable cultural traditions."

In order to correctly understand how and when "the religion of the Jews" originated, it's vital to first understand how "Jews" themselves originated, particularly their growth from the children of a man to a kingdom of a nation - that then created a state religion for itself (the religion will be explained in the next study in this series).

The Reconciliation Of Jacob and Esau The English rendering of "Jew" is actually an abbreviation of Judah, who was just one of the sons of Jacob, who the LORD (see Who Is The LORD?) renamed as "Israel" (see Where Jacob Became Israel).

"35:23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:
35:24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin:
35:25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali:
35:26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padanaram [see The Syrian Marriage Wells]." (Genesis 35:23-26 KJV)

The first "Jews" were the children of Judah (see the Fact Finder question below), who, like the other children, of the other children of Jacob/Israel, grew into a multitude that became a "tribe" of Israel e.g. from Levi came the Levites, from Dan came the Danites, from Judah came the "Jews." When the Israelites entered Egypt, the only "Jews" that existed were a few children of Judah:

"46:12 And the sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zarah: but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul." (Genesis 46:12 KJV)

By the time of the Exodus, four centuries later, Judah / the "Jews" had grown into one of the tribes of Israel. Like the other tribes, the children of Judah had increased into a multitude e.g. Judah's military-age males alone numbered 74,600 men (keeping in mind that Judah was just one of the tribes of Israel e.g. Moses was of the tribe of Levi, not of the tribe of Judah).

"1:26 Of the children of Judah, by their generations, after their families, by the house of their fathers, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 1:27 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Judah, were threescore and fourteen thousand and six hundred." (Numbers 1:26-27 KJV)

The Tribe Of Judah

When the Israelites entered the Promised Land (see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Sinai Journey), Judah / the Jews were allotted their own tribal territory, in the southern area that bordered on Jerusalem. Another tribe, Benjamin, received their territory in the area north of Jerusalem, that also bordered on Jerusalem (keep that closeness of the tribal territories of Judah and Benjamin, and their geographic connection to Jerusalem, in mind as we read further). Notice also however that Jerusalem was not taken by the Jews at that time of Joshua, or long afterward - that would come in the time of King David, of Judah.

Tribal Map

"15:1 This then was the lot of the tribe of the children of Judah by their families; even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin southward was the uttermost part of the south coast.

15:2 And their south border was from the shore of the salt sea, from the bay that looketh southward: 15:3 And it went out to the south side to Maalehacrabbim, and passed along to Zin, and ascended up on the south side unto Kadeshbarnea, and passed along to Hezron, and went up to Adar, and fetched a compass to Karkaa: 15:4 From thence it passed toward Azmon, and went out unto the river of Egypt; and the goings out of that coast were at the sea: this shall be your south coast.

15:5 And the east border was the salt sea, even unto the end of Jordan.

And their border in the north quarter was from the bay of the sea at the uttermost part of Jordan: 15:6 And the border went up to Bethhogla, and passed along by the north of Betharabah; and the border went up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben: 15:7 And the border went up toward Debir from the valley of Achor, and so northward, looking toward Gilgal, that is before the going up to Adummim, which is on the south side of the river: and the border passed toward the waters of Enshemesh, and the goings out thereof were at Enrogel: 15:8 And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the Jebusite; the same is Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the end of the valley of the giants northward: 15:9 And the border was drawn from the top of the hill unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was drawn to Baalah, which is Kirjathjearim: 15:10 And the border compassed from Baalah westward unto mount Seir, and passed along unto the side of mount Jearim, which is Chesalon, on the north side, and went down to Bethshemesh, and passed on to Timnah: 15:11 And the border went out unto the side of Ekron northward: and the border was drawn to Shicron, and passed along to mount Baalah, and went out unto Jabneel; and the goings out of the border were at the sea.

15:12 And the west border was to the great sea, and the coast thereof.

This is the coast of the children of Judah round about according to their families.

15:13 And unto Caleb the son of Jephunneh he gave a part among the children of Judah, according to the commandment of the LORD to Joshua, even the city of Arba the father of Anak, which city is Hebron. 15:14 And Caleb drove thence the three sons of Anak, Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai, the children of Anak. 15:15 And he went up thence to the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir before was Kirjathsepher. 15:16 And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjathsepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife. 15:17 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter to wife.

15:18 And it came to pass, as she came unto him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field: and she lighted off her ass; and Caleb said unto her, What wouldest thou?

15:19 Who answered, Give me a blessing; for thou hast given me a south land; give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs, and the nether springs.

15:20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Judah according to their families.

The Hills of Judea 15:21 And the uttermost cities of the tribe of the children of Judah toward the coast of Edom southward were Kabzeel, and Eder, and Jagur, 15:22 And Kinah, and Dimonah, and Adadah, 15:23 And Kedesh, and Hazor, and Ithnan, 15:24 Ziph, and Telem, and Bealoth, 15:25 And Hazor, Hadattah, and Kerioth, and Hezron, which is Hazor, 15:26 Amam, and Shema, and Moladah, 15:27 And Hazargaddah, and Heshmon, and Bethpalet, 15:28 And Hazarshual, and Beersheba, and Bizjothjah, 15:29 Baalah, and Iim, and Azem, 15:30 And Eltolad, and Chesil, and Hormah, 15:31 And Ziklag, and Madmannah, and Sansannah, 15:32 And Lebaoth, and Shilhim, and Ain, and Rimmon: all the cities are twenty and nine, with their villages:

15:33 And in the valley, Eshtaol, and Zoreah, and Ashnah, 15:34 And Zanoah, and Engannim, Tappuah, and Enam, 15:35 Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah, 15:36 And Sharaim, and Adithaim, and Gederah, and Gederothaim; fourteen cities with their villages:

15:37 Zenan, and Hadashah, and Migdalgad, 15:38 And Dilean, and Mizpeh, and Joktheel, 15:39 Lachish, and Bozkath, and Eglon, 15:40 And Cabbon, and Lahmam, and Kithlish, 15:41 And Gederoth, Bethdagon, and Naamah, and Makkedah; sixteen cities with their villages:

15:42 Libnah, and Ether, and Ashan, 15:43 And Jiphtah, and Ashnah, and Nezib, 15:44 And Keilah, and Achzib, and Mareshah; nine cities with their villages:

15:45 Ekron, with her towns and her villages: 15:46 From Ekron even unto the sea, all that lay near Ashdod, with their villages: 15:47 Ashdod with her towns and her villages, Gaza with her towns and her villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the great sea, and the border thereof:

15:48 And in the mountains, Shamir, and Jattir, and Socoh, 15:49 And Dannah, and Kirjathsannah, which is Debir, 15:50 And Anab, and Eshtemoh, and Anim, 15:51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh; eleven cities with their villages:

15:52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean, 15:53 And Janum, and Bethtappuah, and Aphekah, 15:54 And Humtah, and Kirjatharba, which is Hebron, and Zior; nine cities with their villages:

15:55 Maon, Carmel, and Ziph, and Juttah, 15:56 And Jezreel, and Jokdeam, and Zanoah, 15:57 Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah; ten cities with their villages:

15:58 Halhul, Bethzur, and Gedor, 15:59 And Maarath, and Bethanoth, and Eltekon; six cities with their villages:

15:60 Kirjathbaal, which is Kirjathjearim, and Rabbah; two cities with their villages:

15:61 In the wilderness, Betharabah, Middin, and Secacah, 15:62 And Nibshan, and the city of Salt, and Engedi; six cities with their villages.

15:63 As for the Jebusites the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the children of Judah could not drive them out: but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto this day." (Joshua 15:1-63 KJV)

After the time of Joshua (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Joshua), the Israelites remained as a confederation of tribes through the entire era of the Judges (see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Judges), approximately two centuries. In the time of Samuel (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Samuel), Israel became a monarchy. Israel's first king was Saul, a Benjamite, but when Saul proved himself to be an unwise and unstable leader, he was replaced by David of Judah - after a civil war between the tribes of Israel (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Saul and David and Israel In History and Prophecy: The Civil War). It was after the civil war that David captured Jerusalem and made it, not only an Israelite city, but an Israelite capital city (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Jerusalem). David was a Jew, Jerusalem was in the territory of Judah, but for that relatively brief time, Jerusalem was the capital of all of Israel.

Hebron

"5:1 Then came all the tribes of Israel to David unto Hebron, and spake, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh. 5:2 Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD said to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel.

5:3 So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and king David made a league with them in Hebron before the LORD: and they anointed David king over Israel.

5:4 David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years. 5:5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah. 5:6 And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither. 5:7 Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David.

5:8 And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David's soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.

5:9 So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward. 5:10 And David went on, and grew great, and the LORD God of hosts was with him." (2 Samuel 5:1-10 KJV)

The Kingdom Of Judah

All of the tribes of Israel remained as a united kingdom though the rest of David's reign, all of David's son Solomon's reign, and just the beginning of Solomon's son Rehoboam's reign. The LORD then divided the kingdom because of Solomon's corruption (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Solomon).

The Division of The Kingdom under Rehoboam

"12:12 So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day. 12:13 And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him; 12:14 And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. 12:15 Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.

12:16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David.

So Israel departed unto their tents. 12:17 But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them." (1 Kings 12:12-17 KJV)

Notice carefully that the northern ten tribes that became "Israel" did not include Benjamin (see the tribal map above to understand why geography contributed to Benjamin's remaining with Judah) i.e. "the house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin." Benjamin thereafter became a part of the kingdom of Judah, with the common abbreviation "Jew" to describe the kingdom.

"12:21 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin, an hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men, which were warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, to bring the kingdom again to Rehoboam the son of Solomon.

12:22 But the word of God came unto Shemaiah the man of God, saying, 12:23 Speak unto Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and unto all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the remnant of the people, saying, 12:24 Thus saith the LORD, Ye shall not go up, nor fight against your brethren the children of Israel: return every man to his house; for this thing is from me. They hearkened therefore to the word of the LORD, and returned to depart, according to the word of the LORD." (1 Kings 12:21-24 KJV)

The Levites, as the priesthood, had been distributed throughout all of the tribal territories of Israel, but when the northern kingdom of Israel became grossly idolatrous, the Levites in Israel moved south to Judah (see No Levites In The Lost Ten Tribes?) - where they, like Benjamin became "Jews" by the political definition (like Benjamin, they became "Jews" by the religious definition later - as we will cover in the next study in this series).

Jerusalem In The Time Of Solomon

"11:5 And Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for defence in Judah. 11:6 He built even Bethlehem, and Etam, and Tekoa, 11:7 And Bethzur, and Shoco, and Adullam, 11:8 And Gath, and Mareshah, and Ziph, 11:9 And Adoraim, and Lachish, and Azekah, 11:10 And Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron, which are in Judah and in Benjamin fenced cities. 11:11 And he fortified the strong holds, and put captains in them, and store of victual, and of oil and wine. 11:12 And in every several city he put shields and spears, and made them exceeding strong, having Judah and Benjamin on his side.

11:13 And the priests and the Levites that were in all Israel resorted to him out of all their coasts. 11:14 For the Levites left their suburbs and their possession, and came to Judah and Jerusalem: for Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off from executing the priest's office unto the LORD: 11:15 And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made. 11:16 And after them out of all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the LORD God of Israel came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto the LORD God of their fathers. 11:17 So they strengthened the kingdom of Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of Solomon strong, three years: for three years they walked in the way of David and Solomon." (2 Chronicles 11:5-17 KJV)

From that time on, the people of Judah, Benjamin and Levi who composed the kingdom of Judah, together became known as "Jews," either because, in the case of Judah, they were actually of the tribe of Judah, or, in the case of the Benjamites and Levites, because they were of the kingdom of Judah (on the other hand, the "lost ten tribes" of Israel were never called Jews). We will explain in the next lesson in this series how "the religion of the Jews" thereafter became what is known as "Judaism" today.

The apostle Paul, centuries later, is a prime example of what has been explained in this lesson. Paul called himself, sometimes a Jew, sometimes a Benjamite, depending on whether he was talking about his tribe, or his nation.

"21:39 But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city: and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the people." (Acts 21:39 KJV)

"11:1 I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin." (Romans 11:1 KJV)

Fact Finder: Who was the mother of the first children of Judah? Was it a Canaanite woman? Why?
See Who Were The First Jews?


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This Day In History, August 9

480 BC: The Persian army defeated Leonidas and his Spartan army at the Battle of Thermopylae in Persia (Persia is known today as Iran; see Israel In History and Prophecy: Babylon and Persia).

48 BC: The Battle of Pharsalus. Julius Caesar defeated Gnaius Pompey (see A History Of Jerusalem: Pompey And The Caesars).

378: The Battle of Adrianople in Turkey. The defeat of a Roman army commanded by the Emperor Valens (who was killed on the battlefield) at the hands of the Germanic Visigoths led by Fritigern and augmented by Ostrogothic and other forces. It was a major victory of "barbarian" horsemen over Roman infantry and marked the beginning of Germanic inroads into Roman territory (Germany later became known as The Holy Roman Empire).

1173: The construction of the campanile of the cathedral of Pisa (now known as "the Leaning Tower of Pisa") began.

1483: Pope Sixtus IV held the first Church of Rome mass in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel - that was named after that pope, Sixtus.

1549: England declared war on France.

1584: The construction of Spain's El Escorial was completed after 21 years, by Philip II (a Hapsburg).

1653: Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp was killed following the battle of Terheijde with the English fleet off the Dutch coast. He was the Dutch commander at the defeat of a superior Spanish fleet at the Battle of the Downs in 1639.

1830: Louis-Philippe formally accepted the crown of France after the abdication of Charles X on August 2.

1842: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty established the present-day border between Canada and the U.S. Just 30 years before, U.S. President James Madison declared war on Britain, starting the War of 1812 (fought 1812-1814) with the primary stated goal of annexing ("take by conquest; as of territory") Canada to the U.S. It was the last invasion of Canada by any aggressor nation.

1902: Edward VII of England was crowned after death of his mother Queen Victoria.

1942: After the passing of a "Quit India" campaign by the All-India Congress, Mahatma Gandhi and 50 others were arrested in Bombay.

1945: The Nagasaki atomic bombing. Over 75,000 men, women and children were indiscriminately incinerated to death, while many more were horribly burned and/or poisoned by the radiation. It was the second U.S. use of an atomic "weapon of mass destruction," a plutonium device (the first U.S. atomic bomb, used at Hiroshima a few days earlier, was a uranium device).

1969: Actress Sharon Tate (wife of film director Roman Polanski), coffee heiress Abigail Folger and three others were found murdered in their home in Beverly Hills, California. The Charles Manson cult/gang was later convicted for the murders.

1974: Gerald Ford was sworn in as president of the U.S. He replaced Richard Nixon who resigned in disgrace to avoid criminal prosecution and imprisonment for the Watergate burglary and obstruction of justice cover-up (Ford later pardoned Nixon so that Nixon wouldn't become a felon as had numerous members of the Nixon regime, including Vice President Spiro Agnew for tax evasion and Attorney General John Mitchell for obstruction of justice).

1993: The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan lost a 38-year hold on national leadership.





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