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Thursday, March 9 2017

The Holy Spirit In History and Prophecy: Holy Ghost Or Holy Spirit?

"They were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance"

Consider the difference in translation of Acts 2:4 in the King James Version and the Revised Standard Version.

"2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." (Acts 2:4 King James Version)

"2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance."(Acts 2:4 Revised Standard Version)

River
Many regard the King James Version use of "ghost" as being the product of 1611 language, whereas modern translations use "spirit." But the King James translators also used "spirit" in 1611 - sometimes even within the same verse as "ghost." Notice again from Acts 2:4 in the King James Version:

"2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." (Acts 2:4 King James Version)

The King James Version translators were obviously aware of the meaning of Spirit, so their use of "Ghost" wasn't just a matter of archaic language. But why did they do it?

The King James translators tended (although not always) to use "ghost" for when there was a physical manifestation of some sort, and "spirit" when it was not physical. Their choice of words adhered to the definitions of ghost and spirit that were more differentiated than they are today. Those old translators had more depth, as made obvious by the literal meanings of "ghost" and "spirit" in The Consolidated Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary. Notice that "ghost" is defined as "a visible spirit."

Ghost (from Anglo-Saxon gast, from a root word seen in Icelandic geisa, to rage as fire, and Swedish gusa, to ferment): a visible spirit, a disembodied spirit, an apparition.

Spirit (from Latin spiritus, from spiro, to breathe): the vital or essential part of anything; a supernatural existent life.

There are 3 words of the Holy Bible, 2 Hebrew and 1 Greek, that are translated into English as either spirit or ghost. As explained further in the Fact Finder question below, the literal meanings of all 3 of those original words of the Scriptures simply meant breath, or to breathe:

  • The Hebrew word, pronounced gaw-vah, that means to breathe out

  • The Hebrew word, pronounced roo-akh, that means wind or breath

  • The Greek word, pronounced pnoo-mah, that means a current of air, or breath

Fact Finder: What "ghost" did the Messiah give up when He died?
See The Holy Spirit In History and Prophecy: The Spirit Of All Life


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This Day In History, March 9

141 BC: Liu Che, known as Emperor Wu of Han, assumed the throne of the Han Dynasty of China (see also The First Chinese American War).

632: The last public sermon of Muhammad, the founder of his religion of Islam (see A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad).

1074: Pope Gregory VII excommunicated all married Roman Catholic priests (see also How Did Rome Change True Time?).

Europe
1230: Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeated Theodore of Epirus at the Battle of Klokotnitsa.

1276: Augsburg became an Imperial Free City.

1496: Jews were expelled from Carintha, Austria.

1796: Napoleon Bonaparte married Josephine de Beauharnais, widow of a French officer who was executed during the revolution.

1812: Swedish Pomerania was taken by Napoleon.

1831: The French Foreign Legion was founded in Algeria by King Louis Philippe.

1873: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was established.

Mountie

1888: Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia from 1861, died.

1916: Pancho Villa and 1,500 Mexican cavalry troops raided New Mexico.

Mexico

1933: State Police ("Gestapo" is the German abbreviation for "the State Police") in Nazi Germany opened the Dachau concentration camp, near Munich (see The Terrorist Attack That Enabled Hitler To Become A Dictator).

1936: The German press warned that all Jews who voted in the upcoming elections would be arrested (see also The Character Assassins).

1945: The Bombing of Tokyo by the U.S. Army Air Force began; it became one of the most destructive bombing raids in history (prior to the U.S. atomic bombing of Japan later that year; see Who Would Throw A Nuclear Boomerang?).

1961: The Russian Sputnik 9 carried a dog into orbit. Dozens of dogs were launched into space prior to manned space flight. Most survived, although one in particular, Laika, was deliberately allowed to die to test the effects of a used up oxygen supply.

Dogs

1968: U.S. General William Westmoreland requested 206,000 more U.S. troops to become involved in the Vietnam civil war (earlier French imperialism in southeast Asia resulted in the ancient nation of Vietnam being divided into North and South Vietnam, a foreign-imposed partition of the Vietnamese people that did not end until the early 1970s after the U.S. had involved itself in the Vietnamese civil conflict for over a decade).

1986: U.S. Navy divers found the intact crew compartment of the space shuttle Challenger, along with the remains of the astronauts, nearly 6 weeks after the failed launch. While many at first believed that the crew compartment had been disintegrated by the explosion, it actually was just sheered away from the rest of the vehicle and plummeted, with the crew still alive (crew members were found having deployed emergency equipment that would only have been used after a catastrophic event), until it struck the ocean surface at hundreds of miles per hour.

1992: Former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin died at age 78. He and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt were awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1978 for the Camp David Peace Accord.

1995: A Canadian Coast Guard ship fired upon and arrested the fleeing Spanish ship Estai after pursuing it out into international waters off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The Spanish ship was observed violating Canadian law within Canadian waters; as well, a Canadian Navy submarine later recovered the net that the Spanish ship cut while being pursued and found it to have an illegal small-mesh liner that was "vacuuming the ocean" of fish of all sizes, thereby exterminating future fish stocks. The seizure of the Spanish ship and its crew led to weeks of political tension and an escalating high-seas warship standoff between Canada and the rising-superpower European Union (which forced Britain to chose between its European Union membership and "the Canadians that have always been there for us during two world wars" - to which the British government chose Canada; as well, during the crisis hundreds of British fishing boats flew Canadian flags while working off the coast of Europe).

1997: A solar eclipse permitted people in China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia to see the Hale-Bopp Comet during the day.

2010: The first homosexual "marriages" in Washington, D.C. were conducted.

2011: The Space Shuttle Discovery made its final landing after 39 flights.



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