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Wednesday, April 19 2017
The Crowns Of The Pillars
"And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass. And I saw no Temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the Temple of it"
The English-language word "chapiter" (chapter is a shorter version of chapiter) originated from a Latin word, capitulum, which itself is based upon the root word caput, which means head. Numerous English words were derived from that Latin source e.g. a cap that is worn on the head, a bottle cap which covers the head of a bottle, decapitation which means to remove the head, capital which means a political head.
The King James Version uses "chapiter" to translate three Hebrew words, all of which mean "head" in one way or another. The most prevalent, pronounced in Hebrew as ko-theh-reth, means a crown. Another, pronounced rosh, means head or beginning. The third, pronounced tseh-feth, means to encircle (as a crown).
The King James version used "chapiter" to describe the tops of the posts or pillars in the Tabernacle and the Temple. As with all pillar capitals, they were not merely decorative - their location widened the area of the column's support of the load above it. They were about wise engineering, not mere ornamentation.
The Tabernacle that was constructed in the Sinai after the Exodus had gold-covered chapiters / crowns (see What Did They Do In The Sinai With Their Egyptian Gold? and The Building Of The Tabernacle and The Glory Of The LORD In His Tabernacle):
"36:36 And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver. 36:37 And he made an hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework; 36:38 And the five pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid their chapiters and their fillets with gold: but their five sockets were of brass." (Exodus 36:36-38 KJV)
The Temple that was constructed in Jerusalem in the time of King Solomon had ornate, but wise from an engineering perspective, chapiters / crowns atop the pillars (see Solomon's Temple Address and What Temple Did Ezekiel See?):
"7:16 And he made two chapiters of molten brass [see Brass, Bronze, Copper], to set upon the tops of the pillars: the height of the one chapiter was five cubits, and the height of the other chapiter was five cubits: 7:17 And nets of checker work, and wreaths of chain work, for the chapiters which were upon the top of the pillars; seven for the one chapiter, and seven for the other chapiter. 7:18 And he made the pillars, and two rows round about upon the one network, to cover the chapiters that were upon the top, with pomegranates: and so did he for the other chapiter. 7:19 And the chapiters that were upon the top of the pillars were of lily work in the porch, four cubits. 7:20 And the chapiters upon the two pillars had pomegranates also above, over against the belly which was by the network: and the pomegranates were two hundred in rows round about upon the other chapiter. 7:21 And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple [see also Temples]: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz. 7:22 And upon the top of the pillars was lily work: so was the work of the pillars finished." (1 Kings 7:16-22 KJV)
Fact Finder: When won't there be any more physical Temples in Jerusalem? Who will be the crown of the pillars then?
This Day In History, April 19
65: Milichus betrayed Piso's plot to assassinate the Emperor Nero (see also Nero's Torches).
531: The Battle of Callinicum. A Byzantine (i.e. East Roman Empire) army under the command of Belisarius was defeated by the Persians (Persia is today known as Iran) at Ar-Raqqah in northern Syria.
1012: Aelfheah, the 29th Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by Danes who had been ravaging the south of England.
1529: In Germany at the Diet of Spires (Speyer), a document signed by Lutheran leaders lodged a "protest" that demanded freedom of religion and the right of minorities. From then on, the German Lutheran Reformers were known as "Protestants."
1539: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed the Truce of Frankfurt with rebellious Protestant princes (see The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).
1587: English Admiral Sir Francis Drake entered Cadiz harbor and sank the Spanish fleet, an action he referred to "as singeing the king of Spain's beard."
1689: Queen Christina of Sweden died. Queen from 1644-54, she gave up the throne because of her secret conversion to Roman Catholicism, which was outlawed in Sweden.
1713: Holy Roman emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction, giving women the rights of succession to Hapsburg possessions.
1770: English explorer Captain James Cook sighted the eastern coast of what is now Australia.
1770: Marie Antoinette married Louis XVI of France.
1802: The Spanish reopened the port of New Orleans to U.S. merchants (the U.S. then consisted of the former New England colonies).
1809: The Battles of Abensberg-Eckmuhl began. Over the next 4 days, a series of defeats for Austria, which cost it the support of other German states in the 1809 campaign against Napoleon. The battles were fought in Bavaria between 190,000 Austrians under Archduke Charles and 176,000 French and allied troops under Napoleon.
1839: The Treaty of London was signed, establishing recognition of the new Kingdom of Belgium, which had separated from the Netherlands, by all the states of Europe.
1850: The Clayton-Bulwer agreement was signed under which Britain and the U.S. agreed not to obtain exclusive control of a proposed Panama Canal (the U.S. later did anyway).
1882: Charles Darwin, English naturalist who developed the theory of evolution, died (see Rescuing Charles Darwin From The Atheists).
1906: Pierre Curie, French chemist and physicist, was run over and killed in Paris. With his wife, Marie, he had made numerous discoveries involving magnetism and radioactivity.
1933: President Franklin Roosevelt issued a proclamation removing the U.S. from the gold standard - in effect, money became nothing more than printed paper with "nothing to back it up," which enabled governments to print as much money as they wanted, thereby reducing its declared value even more each time.
1938: General Francisco Franco declared victory in the Spanish Civil War.
1943: The Warsaw Ghetto uprising against Nazi occupation began.
1954: The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan proclaimed Urdu and Bengali as the official national languages of Pakistan.
1971: The world's first space station, the Russian Salyut 1, was launched into orbit.
1989: A gun turret exploded on the USS Iowa; 47 sailors were killed.
1993: Over 80 members of the "Branch Davidian" group, including their leader David Koresh, died when U.S. federal agents stormed their compound in Waco, Texas after a 51 day siege.
1995: The worst act of terrorism in U.S. territory (until September 11 2001, if one doesn't include the many documented incidents of genocide of native American men, women and children through the 1800s) occurred when the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was bombed by the terrorist Timothy McVeigh (a white, "Christian," U.S. Army veteran who demonstrated that anyone can be a "terrorist"). 168 people, including infants, were killed.
1999: The German Bundestag (Parliament) returned to Berlin, the first German parliamentary body to meet there since the Nazi Reichstag was dissolved in 1945.
2005: After the death of Pope John Paul II, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope of the Church of Rome. The new Pope assumed the name Benedict XVI.
2011: Due to illness and old age, Fidel Castro resigned from the Communist Party of Cuba's central committee. He held the office for 45 years.