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Monday, September 11 2017
Biblical Eras: How Did Judah Become Known As Israel?
"Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of His sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only"
The modern-day state of Israel is actually a restoration of the ancient Kingdom Of Judah in which "Jew," the abbreviation of the name of the tribal patriarch Judah (just as Joseph is abbreviated by Joe) came to refer to the political union of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi (see Jews - Three Tribes and Three Meanings). The Kingdom of Israel, the so-called "lost ten tribes" have not yet returned (see the Fact Finder question below).
The history of how that reality came to be:
Abraham (see the series of studies beginning with A Biography Of Abraham: The Genealogy Of Abram) had a son named Isaac (see Biblical Eras: Isaac - The Beginning Of Abraham's Messianic Line). Isaac then had a son named Jacob (see The Birth of Jacob and Esau).
The LORD (i.e. Jesus Christ; see A Biography Of Jesus Christ: The LORD God Of Creation) changed Jacob's name to "Israel" (see Biblical Eras: Jacobites To Israelites).
Jacob / Israel had twelve sons, just one of which was Judah, or "Jew" (as explained, "Jew" is merely an abbreviation of Judah): Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Jacob's Family). The children of Jacob / Israel were the first generation of Israelites. Further generations of Israelites were born from that time on.
Each of the sons of Jacob / Israel became a founding patriarch of a tribe of Israelites e.g. from Reuben came the Reubenites, from Levi came the Levites, from Judah came the "Jews" (see The First Jews).
When the Israelites entered the Promised Land in the time of Joshua, each tribe of Israel was given its own territory within Israel (just as Canada is divided into Provinces, or the U.S. is divided into States; see Biblical Eras: The Founding Of Israel As A Country).
Israel remained a single confederation of individual tribes through the era of Joshua and the Judges (see Biblical Eras: Governments Of The Judges) and then became a single kingdom during the time of King David and his son and successor King Solomon (see Biblical Eras: The City Of David - When Jerusalem Became An Israelite City and Biblical Eras: The Golden Age Of King Solomon).
In the time of Solomon's son and successor King Rehoboam, the LORD divided Israel into two separate and politically independent kingdoms - the northern, and across the Jordan River eastern ten tribes, were the Kingdom of Israel (see Biblical Eras: The Kingdoms Of North and South - Israel and Judah), while in the south, the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi were the Kingdom of Judah. Israel and Judah were never again united, to this day, politically, or religiously.
By 721 BC, the LORD had the Kingdom of Israel conquered by, and taken into exile to, Assyria. The "lost ten tribes" never returned - in ancient or modern times (see Biblical Eras: The Lost Ten Tribes Of Israel - Why?).
By 586 BC, the LORD had the Kingdom of Judah conquered by, and taken into exile to, Babylon (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Back To Babylon). The people of the Kingdom of Judah, known then by the national abbreviation "Jews" (regardless of whether they were of the tribe of Judah, Benjamin or Levi, while retaining their tribal identity at the same time; see Was Paul A Jew or a Benjamite?) did return, after seventy years, as the LORD had declared in prophecy before they had left (see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Prophets and Jeremiah's Letter To Babylon).
From the time of the return, the "Jews" created their national religion of "Judaism" - although based on what the LORD gave to all of Israel in the Sinai, Judaism added practices and observances that the "lost ten tribes" never knew or practiced; Moses would not recognize much of what is practiced in Judaism (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Judaism; see also A Biography Of Abraham: Abrahamic Religions).
The people of Judah were once again exiled after repeated rebellions against the Romans in the first and second centuries AD (see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Zealots and Israel In History and Prophecy: Aelia Capitolina), after which the Church of Rome and Islam occupied the land of Israel (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Rome and Islam). Beginning after the First World War, as enabled by Britain (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Balfour Declaration), the people of the kingdom of Judah (as explained above) began a return home.
By 1948, the present day state of "Israel" was declared by the people of Judah. While it is called Israel, and while, as explained, Jews are Israelites, the actual political nation of Israel, the "lost ten tribes" has not yet returned. The State of Israel today is actually a restoration of the Kingdom of Judah, as existed after the division of Israel into "Israel" and "Judah" (see Kings of Israel and Judah), not of the united kingdom of Israel, as ruled by King David.
Fact Finder: When will Israel and Judah be restored to a single kingdom?
This Day In History, September 11
1297: The Battle of Stirling Bridge during the First War of Scottish Independence (1296-1328). The Scots under William Wallace battled an English force under the Earl of Surrey.
1541: French explorer Jacques Cartier reached Lachine rapids, near present-day Montreal, on his third voyage to Canada (see also The Greatest Islands Of Earth).
1609: English explorer Henry Hudson discovered what was later named Manhattan Island. It wasn't a discovery for the native people who were already there for many centuries (see The First Chinese American War).
1709: An Anglo-Dutch-Austrian force led by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy won a costly victory over the French in the Battle of Malplaquet, the last great battle of the War of the Spanish Succession.
1712: French astronomer (of Italian origin) Giovanni Cassini died at age 87. He made numerous discoveries, including 4 moons of Saturn, the existence of divisions in the rings of Saturn, and the rotational period (the length of its "day") of Mars (see also What Is Unique About Earth's Sun And Moon? and When The Stars Come Out).
1777: The Battle of Brandywine. The British Army defeated rebel forces under former British Army Colonel George Washington and advanced on Philadelphia.
George Washington, as portrayed in the authenticated portrait below proudly posing in his British Red Coat Uniform prior to his desertion, served in the British Army in Virginia during the "French and Indian Wars," the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years War.
As can be expected, an extremely unpopular view that often produces a violent response from those who adhere to "approved history," is nevertheless honestly believed by a very few truth-seeking, courageous historians (unlike the majority who just blindly parrot the "sacred legends" that have evolved during the past 240 years). They regard Washington's being rejected for promotion to General by better-performing Virginia-born officers in the British Army as the actual personal vanity cause of his bitter resentment and eventual armed rebellion against the sworn allegiance that he had previously honored. Washington finally succeeded in his wish to be a General however when he was declared so by his fellow revolutionaries (see also When Do Liberals Become Conservatives? and What Did A Father Of Democracy Predict About It?).
Ironically (considering his supposed views about "freedom" and that "all men are created equal"), those same historians also point out that after his retirement Washington returned to his Virginia plantation where he remained a slave owner - an entire lifetime, before and after his revolution, of holding men and women in chains to serve their "freedom" slave master.
1792: The Hope Diamond was stolen, along with other French crown jewels.
1919: U.S. Marines (see also Send In The Marines) invaded Honduras (1 of 5 invasions of the country over a span of 20 years), primarily at the behest of U.S. corporations that were involved in the banana industry of the Central American nations. The derogatory term "Banana Republic" was originated by the U.S. writer William Sydney Porter (pen name O. Henry) in describing those for-business invasions.
1922: Under the authority of a United Nations Mandate, "Palestine" (an English rendering of the Biblical word "Philistine"; see Where Is Palestine?) and Trans-Jordan ("across the Jordan"; see also Jordan's West Bank Invasion) came under British control as one of the major after-effects of the First World War (see A History Of Jerusalem: The British Mandate).
1941: Construction of the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia began. Exactly 60 years to the day later, it was severely damaged during the 9-11 attacks (see the entry for 2001, below).
1971: Nikita Khrushchev died at age 77. He led the Soviet Union through the height of the Cold War with the U.S. He began to lose political power after losing the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 during which President John F. Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on the island and put all U.S. nuclear forces on their highest alert. Many historians consider the crisis to be the closest the world came to nuclear warfare (see also Who Would Throw A Nuclear Boomerang?).
1974: Haile Selassie was deposed as king of Ethiopia.
1978: U.S. President Jimmy Carter, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel meet at Camp David and agree on the Camp David Accords, a basis of peace between Israel and Egypt.
1997: Scottish voters strongly approved (74.2%) plans to establish a separate Scottish parliament apart from the British parliament, 290 years after the Act of Union with England in 1707.
2001: Using hijacked airliners, terrorists from Pakistan and Saudi Arabia (neither Pakistan nor Saudi Arabia were invaded in retaliation) killed approximately 3,000 people in New York (the collapse of the twin towers of the World Trade Center), Washington (the Pentagon) and Pennsylvania (a hijacked airliner that went down before reaching its target because of a passenger revolt).
The terrorist attacks triggered the U.S. military invasion of Afghanistan where the attacks on the U.S. were planned and commanded by Saudi Arabian born Osama bin Laden, and was used as a justification for the U.S. invasion of Iraq - although no evidence has ever been found that Iraqi leader Sadam Hussein had any involvement in the attacks on New York and Washington (the hijackers were all from Pakistan and Saudi Arabia), nor were any "weapons of mass destruction" ever found in Iraq.
2007: Russia tested the largest conventional (i.e. non-nuclear) weapon ever constructed, the Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power. The Russian bomb is also called the "Father of All Bombs" because it is reportedly four times more powerful than the US military's GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb whose official military acronym "MOAB" is often stated as the "Mother of All Bombs" (see also Russia Or Europe - Who Has Been The Invader?).