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Sunday, October 14 2018

A Bible Journey, 56: The Sacred Name

"I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as God Almighty, but by My Name the LORD I did not make Myself fully known to them"

Moses' return to Egypt was not an immediate success. The Pharaoh haughtily rejected him at their first meeting (see A Bible Journey, 55: Bricks Of Stubble). The LORD (who was and is Jesus Christ; see The Real Jesus: The Word Of The LORD God) did however make their return much more persuasive.

"6:1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh: for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. 6:2 And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD (Exodus 6:1-2 KJV)

Consider how various translations render Exodus 6:3 from the actual Hebrew:

YHVH

"And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them." (King James Version)

"I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as God Almighty, but by my name the LORD I did not make myself fully known to them." (New International Version)

"I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as El-Shaddai--'God Almighty'--but I did not reveal my name, Yahweh, to them." (New Living Translation)

"That appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; and my name ADONAI I did not shew them." (Douay-Rheims Bible)

Why such differences?

"Jehovah" is one of the man-made English-language renderings of the Hebrew letters for YHVH (that some render as YHWH), a Name of God revealed to the early Israelites. The original word was recorded in the Scriptures without vowels, so no one can be completely certain as to its correct pronunciation - the e, o and a of JeHoVaH were added much later in an effort by some translators to propose their idea of the pronunciation, with the y also changed to a j sound (there is no "J" in Hebrew). Other attempts to fill-in-the-vowels have produced more "sacred names," along with Jehovah, such as "Yahweh" or "Yahveh."

Hebrew

After about 300 BC, the Name YHVH was held in such a beyond the Commandment regard by Jews (Israel had by then split into Israel and Judah; see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Lost Ten Tribes and Israel In History and Prophecy: Kingdom Of Judah), in accordance with their then "take no chances" interpretation of The Third Commandment to not use The Name of God in vain, that it was not spoken at all (an attitude that God never intended in His Command - many righteous people did speak the Name of YHVH, to other people, as well as to YHVH Himself, without offense). Also, whenever YHVH occurred in the Scriptures, they pronounced it, as is still done today, "Adonai" (i.e. "Lord"), thus replacing the YHVH with Adonai.

The practice was carried over into the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures of the Old Testament which was done by Greek-speaking Hebrew scholars, where the YHVH was translated as the Greek word Kurios i.e. Lord. This was further carried into modern times where English-language Bibles now commonly translate the YHVH as all-capitals LORD. One of the major exceptions was the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901 that uses "Jehovah" when translating the YHVH.

The King James Version also sometimes uses "JEHOVAH," as well as "LORD," in translating the YHVH. Note also however that the LORD was known to "Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them."

"6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. 6:4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers. 6:5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant." (Exodus 6:3-5 KJV)

The LORD then reassured Moses and Aaron, and the entire Israelite nation, that He would deliver them from their captivity, as He had also promised and prophesied to Abraham centuries before (see The Exodus Prophecy).

"6:6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments: 6:7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. 6:8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD." (Exodus 6:6-8 KJV)

Moses and Aaron returned, but the Israelites had become discouraged after the Pharaoh's rebuke of Moses and Aaron the first time. They would nevertheless become believers again.

Ancient Egypt

"6:9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

6:10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 6:11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.

6:12 And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips?" (Exodus 6:9-12 KJV)

The genealogy of Moses and Aaron was included here for the purpose of the Levite priesthood that was about to be established (see the Fact Finder question below).

"6:13 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

6:14 These be the heads of their fathers' houses:

The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi: these be the families of Reuben.

6:15 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman: these are the families of Simeon.

6:16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and seven years.

6:17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families.

6:18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years.

6:19 And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations.

6:20 And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years.

6:21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri. 6:22 And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri.

6:23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.

6:24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korhites. 6:25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bare him Phinehas: these are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.

6:26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies. 6:27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron." (Exodus 6:13-27 KJV)

Moses was a humble man, which left little margin to prevent falling into discouragement himself. Arrogant, narcissistic people have a long way to fall, in their bloated-ego minds, to a state of discouragement, but those of a humble attitude realistically are always much closer to dismay.

"6:28 And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt, 6:29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD: speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee. 6:30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? 6:30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?" (Exodus 6:28-30 KJV)

Fact Finder: How and when did the Levite priesthood originate from the family of Moses and Aaron?
See The Origin Of The Levite Priesthood


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This Day In History, October 14

222: Pope Callixtus I was killed by a mob in Rome (see also The Struggle For The Papacy).

1066: The Battle of Hastings was fought on Senlac Hill, about seven miles from Hastings, England. The invading Norman forces of William the Conqueror defeated those of King Harold II of England.

William the Conqueror

1322: Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeated King Edward II of England at Byland, north of York. The independence of Scotland followed.

1586: The trial of Mary Queen of Scots began for her attempts to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I.

1644: William Penn was born. The city of Philadelphia was planned, built and named by Penn while he was working as a land developer sent by King James. Ironically, Pennsylvania itself was named after Penn - a life-long loyal servant of the king (Penn was born and died in England) who was not involved in the rebellion of the colonies that Britain established in the wilderness of New England.

William Penn

1656: Massachusetts enacted the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (the "Quakers") and declared their beliefs to be "apostate and politically subversive."

1705: The English navy captured Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession.

1806: Napoleon defeated the Prussians (not to be confused with Russia; Prussia is in Germany) and Saxons (Saxony is also in Germany; the Anglos were a tribe of the Saxons) at the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt in Saxony. He completed his conquest of Prussia within 6 weeks.

Napoleon

1809: The Treaty of Vienna was signed. Austria ceded Trieste and Illyria to France, Galicia to Poland and Russia, and Inndistrict to Bavaria.

1848: Habsburg imperial forces led by Windischgratz retook Vienna from rebellious citizens who had caused the royal Habsburg family of Franz Joseph to flee the city; 2,000 of the rebels were killed.

1911: The revolution in China began which resulted in the abdication of the last emperor, 6 year old Henry Pu-Yi.

1912: Theodore Roosevelt became one of numerous U.S. Presidents who were shot by their fellow citizens when he was hit by a would-be assassin in Milwaukee. The bullet was stopped by Roosevelt's thick coat and a bundle of manuscript paper in his pocket.

1913: Britain's worst mining disaster occurred when an explosion in the Universal Colliery in Glamorgan, Wales, killed 439 coal miners.

1933: Germany announced that it would withdraw from the League of Nations and take no further part in the Geneva Disarmament Conference (see also Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).

1939: At the beginning of the Second World War (1939-1945; see also The Assassination That Triggered Two World Wars, the Royal Navy battleship Royal Oak was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine in Scapa Flow Bay in northern Scotland; over 800 British sailors were killed.

1944: Nazi field marshal Erwin Rommel (the victorious "Desert Fox" of north Africa before being defeated by British and Canadian forces) committed suicide at age 53 after it was discovered that he had been involved in an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. He had been given the choice of execution or suicide after his "trial."

1944: British and Greek troops liberated Athens which had been in German possession since 1941.

1957: Queen Elizabeth II became the first Canadian Monarch to personally open a session of the Canadian Parliament, presenting her Speech from the Throne in Ottawa ("parliament" is from a French word that means to speak from a mount i.e. a prominent place where all can see and hear).

Canada Parliament

1964: Leonid Brezhnev became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1979: The first "Gay Rights" march was held, by 200,000 U.S. "lesbian and gay people" in Washington, D.C.

1981: Egyptian Vice President Hosni Mubarak was elected President of Egypt, a week after the assassination of the President Anwar Sadat.

1994: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, and Palestinian terrorist leader Yasser Arafat were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.





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