Judea was a territory within the land of Israel whose boundaries were variously defined at different stages of Bible History, although Jerusalem was always within it. Known as the kingdom of "Judah" (see Jews At War With Israel) before the Babylonian exile (see Why Babylon? and King Nebuchadnezzar and Temple Mount Treasures), the territory became known as Judea after the return, and included most of the area west of the Jordan River. It expanded briefly during the dominance of The Maccabees, however by the time of Christ, the Romans (see Ancient Empires - Rome) designated Judea as the southernmost division of "Palestine," the other two being Samaria and Galilee. Under Roman rule, Judea was included within the province of Syria, and was governed by a procurator - Pontius Pilate being the most well-known.
Fact Finder: In describing events of end-time Prophecy that would occur just before The Return Of Jesus Christ, what did Jesus Christ Himself warn the people in Judea to do when The Abomination of Desolation appears?
See also The Place To Watch