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July and August

The famous Roman military man and dictator (when he seized power he refused the title of king, preferring dictator, which to him seemed more honorable) Julius Caesar was the last "president" of the Roman republic. After he was assassinated in the Senate in March of 44 BC by a group that included his former allies Cassius and Brutus, the budding Roman Empire (see Ancient Empires - Rome) re-developed into a monarchy. The first king was Julius Caesar's grandnephew, and adopted son, Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar, the emperor (i.e. a king of an empire, see Emperor) best-known to Bible History as the man who ordered the famous taxation census that caused Jesus Christ to be born in Bethlehem.

"And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria. And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; because he was of the house and lineage of David: To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn." (Luke 2:1-7 KJV)

Julius and Augustus

Augustus Caesar The monthly calendar (see also The Pagan Week) that most of the western world uses today originated from the pagan Romans, two months of which were re-named for Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus i.e. July and August.


Known to the Romans as Januarius, it was named after Janus, the Roman pagan god of doorways and beginnings.


Known to the Romans as Februarius, it was named from Februa, a pagan "purification" festival held during the month.


Known to the Romans as Martius, it was named from the Roman god Mars.


Known to the Romans as Aprilis, it was named after the goddess Venus, also known as Aphrodite.


Known to the Romans as Maius, it was named after the goddess Maia.


Known to the Romans as Junius, it was named after the Roman goddess Juno.


Originally known as Quintilis on the Roman calendar, it was renamed Julius after Julius Caesar.


Originally known as Sextilus, it was renamed Augustus after Caesar Augustus.


September is named from the Latin word septem, meaning seven i.e. before the Romans changed it, their calendar began in March i.e. spring in the northern hemisphere. April was the second month (now it's the fourth), May was the third month (now it's the fifth) etc. and September was the seventh month (now it's the ninth).


October is named from the Latin word octo, meaning eight. As explained above, the Roman calendar later shifted ahead 2 months. October, meaning the eighth month, became the tenth month, as it is today.


November is named from the Latin word novem, meaning nine. November was originally the ninth month of the Roman calendar, now it's the eleventh.


December is named from the Latin word decem, meaning ten. Again, as explained above, December was originally the tenth month of the Roman calendar.

Fact Finder: How does the Biblical calendar differ from the pagan Roman calendar?
See The Bible Calendar and Bible Months

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