"Babel" originated from a Hebrew word, pronounced baw-bel, which means confusion. The Hebrew word might itself be a parody of an earlier Chaldean ("Babylonian") word, pronounced bee-raw, which meant palace. How did a place called "palace" become called "confusion"? After The Flood, when humanity was beginning again, Babel was the center of power of Nimrod's kingdom i.e. "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel" (see below), but when humanity rapidly became too big of a threat to itself, The Lord saw "Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do," and so The Lord (see YHVH, Adonai, Jehovah, LORD) scattered both the people and their language.
"Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because The Lord did there confound the language of all the earth"
After the Flood, humanity began in the area adjacent to Mount Ararat, where the ark landed (see also How Big Was Noah's Ark?). The kingdoms of humanity began from Noah's three sons - Shem, Ham and Japheth. Some of Ham's descendants, such as Nimrod, became mighty warriors and founded empires in the region of Babel (corresponding to what is today Iraq), although Ham's descendants also later migrated westward in what became the land of Israel (e.g. the Canaanites are descended from Ham, see below) and then into Africa (e.g. "Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham," Psalm 105:23 KJV)
"And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan"
"And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan."
"And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before The Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before The Lord. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel [see Ancient Empires - Babylon], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Asshur [see Ancient Empires - Assyria], and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city."
"And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, out of whom came Philistim, and Caphtorim."
"And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, And the Jebusite [see Jebusites], and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad."
"And the border of the Canaanites [see The Land Of Canaan] was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha."
"These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues [i.e. tongues means actual languages - see the Fact Finder question below], in their countries, and in their nations." (Genesis 10:6-20 KJV)
Humanity's different languages began from the famous "tower of Babel":
"And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there."
"And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime [i.e. Bitumen] had they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth."
"And The Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. And The Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech."
"So The Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because The Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did The Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." (Genesis 11:1-9 KJV)
Fact Finder: "Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because The Lord did there confound the language of all the earth" is how and where the languages of humanity became different. For the sake of the Gospel, what miraculous power was given to some of His people so that humanity could have the knowledge to come out of "Babylon"?