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Moses' return to Egypt, at age eighty ("Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh," Exodus 7:7; see also The Education Of Moses), would be different than the previous journey. This time, miraculous signs and wonders would accompany the demand to set the Israelites free. The "I will harden Pharaoh's heart" could be interpreted literally, or it could also be referring to how naturally stubborn people react by simply becoming more stubborn when forced to do something.
"But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I multiply My signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, Pharaoh [see Egypt's Royal House] will not listen to you; then I will lay My hand upon Egypt and bring forth My hosts, My people the sons of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great acts of judgment. And the Egyptians shall know that I am The Lord, when I stretch forth My hand upon Egypt and bring out the people of Israel from among them." (Exodus 7:3-5 RSV)
First, The Lord's miraculous change of a rod into a snake. By Satanic means, the Pharaoh's sorcerers (see the Fact Finder question below) also transformed their rods into snakes.
"So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did as The Lord commanded; Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent.
Next, the famous plague of blood - but again, by Satanic means, the Pharaoh's sorcerers produced blood in the waters.
"Moses and Aaron did as The Lord commanded; in the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants, he lifted up the rod and struck the water that was in The Nile, and all the water that was in the Nile turned to blood. And the fish in the Nile died; and the Nile became foul, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
Exodus Chapter 8
With the waters of the Nile so fouled, it naturally produced the next plague, frogs driven onto the land, that The Lord miraculously multiplied. Also, once out of water, the frogs died, adding to the troubles. The Pharaoh's sorcerers foolishly continued to attempt to match the miracles, by Satanic means, while ironically, adding to the destruction of their nation. Through it all, Pharaoh maintained his stubbornness.
"So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt. But the magicians did the same by their secret arts, and brought frogs upon the land of Egypt." (Exodus 8:6-7 RSV)
With the plague of gnats, the Pharaoh's sorcerers were either losing their Satanic powers, or were starting to realize that they were very foolishly adding to the damage to their own country.
"Then The Lord said to Moses, "Say to Aaron, 'Stretch out your rod and strike the dust of the earth, that it may become gnats throughout all the land of Egypt.'" And they did so; Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and struck the dust of the earth, and there came gnats on man and beast; all the dust of the earth became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt.
Then the plague of flies.
"And The Lord did so; there came great swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh and into his servants' houses, and in all the land of Egypt the land was ruined by reason of the flies." (Exodus 8:24 RSV)
Exodus Chapter 9
Next, the plague on livestock; damaging to the economy, and on some of Egypt's "gods" (e.g. their bull idol that the Israelites may have had in mind for their Golden Calf a few months later) - but the Pharaoh remained stubborn.
"And on the morrow The Lord did this thing; all the cattle of the Egyptians died, but of the cattle of the people of Israel not one died. And Pharaoh sent, and behold, not one of the cattle of the Israelites was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go." (Exodus 9:6-7 RSV)
Then the plague of boils (see Biological Warfare).
"And The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of ashes from the kiln, and let Moses throw them toward heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. And it shall become fine dust over all the land of Egypt, and become boils breaking out in sores on man and beast throughout all the land of Egypt."
The plague of hail followed. It was spring, so specific crops were lost (i.e. "The flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud. But the wheat and the spelt were not ruined, for they are late in coming up," Exodus 9:31 RSV). The Israelites in Goshen were spared.
"Then Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven; and The Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down to the earth. And The Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt; there was hail, and fire flashing continually in the midst of the hail, very heavy hail, such as had never been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. The hail struck down everything that was in the field throughout all the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and the hail struck down every plant of the field, and shattered every tree of the field. Only in The Land Of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, there was no hail." (Exodus 9:23-26 RSV)
Fact Finder: Are the Pharaoh's sorcerers who opposed Moses and Aaron identified in the New Testament?