Luke Chapter 19
Publicans were mercenary collectors who operated in their own towns and districts, among their own people, for the occupying Roman government (see Ancient Empires - Rome). There were two classes of publicans, the "chief of the publicans" such as Zacchaeus (Luke 19:2), and the subordinate publicans who worked for them (Luke 5:27, 15:1, 18:10). As well as often being viewed as traitors, some of them were very corrupt, being little more than extortionists, and as such they were generally hated by the public. Not all were that bad, or perhaps more likely, remained that bad, however. Matthew, also known as Levi, one of The Twelve Apostles, was a publican when Jesus called him.
"19:1 And Jesus entered and passed through Jericho. [see also Jesus In Jericho] 19:2 And, behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus, which was the chief among the Publicans, and he was rich. 19:3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the press, because he was little of stature.
19:4 And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way.
19:5 And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and saw him, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to day I must abide at thy house. 19:6 And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully.
19:7 And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, That he was gone to be guest with a man that is a sinner.
19:8 And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.
19:9 And Jesus said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham. 19:10 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost." (Luke 19:1-10 KJV)
The parable of the ten minas ("pounds" in the King James translation; a mina, also rendered mineh, was the equivalent of about 3 months wages for a laborer i.e. there were approximately 50 shekels in a mina, 60 minas in a talent) provided the teaching that Christians are expected to grow in knowledge of and obedience to The Lord (see Christian Living and The Process Of Conversion). Those who do nothing will become nothing.
"19:11 And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God [see The Gospel of The Kingdom of God] should immediately appear [see Could Christ Return Tonight?]. 19:12 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. 19:13 And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come.
19:14 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.
19:15 And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how much every man had gained by trading.
19:16 Then came the first, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds.
19:17 And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.
19:18 And the second came, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds.
19:19 And he said likewise to him, Be thou also over five cities.
19:20 And another came, saying, Lord, behold, here is thy pound, which I have kept laid up in a napkin: 19:21 For I feared thee, because thou art an austere man: thou takest up that thou layedst not down, and reapest that thou didst not sow.
19:22 And he saith unto him, Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant. Thou knewest that I was an austere man, taking up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow:
19:23 Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury?
19:24 And he said unto them that stood by, Take from him the pound, and give it to him that hath ten pounds.
19:25 And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.
19:26 For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath shall be given; and from him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him.
19:27 But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me." (Luke 19:11-27 KJV)
The Messiah's "triumphal entry" into Jerusalem (see Israelite Monarchy - The Messiah) was upon a mere donkey. Donkeys were the common means of peaceful and humble transportation, while horses were usually for war. Christ will however be riding a horse on His next triumphal entry into Jerusalem (see Two Very Different Triumphal Entries).
"19:28 And when he had thus spoken, he went before, ascending up to Jerusalem. 19:29 And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany [see also Beth], at the mount called The Mount Of Olives [shown in photo], he sent two of his disciples, 19:30 Saying, Go ye into the village over against you; in the which at your entering ye shall find a colt tied, whereon yet never man sat: loose him, and bring him hither. 19:31 And if any man ask you, Why do ye loose him? thus shall ye say unto him, Because the Lord hath need of him.
19:32 And they that were sent went their way, and found even as he had said unto them.
19:33 And as they were loosing the colt, the owners thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the colt?
19:34 And they said, The Lord hath need of him.
19:35 And they brought him to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon. 19:36 And as he went, they spread their clothes in the way.
19:37 And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples [see Disciples and Apostles] began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen; 19:38 Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest [see also Hosanna].
19:39 And some of the Pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.
19:40 And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out.
19:41 And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it [see also Sodom and Egypt], 19:42 Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. 19:43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, 19:44 And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation." (Luke 19:28-44 KJV)
Jesus frequently taught at the Temple, much to the chagrin of the corrupt religious establishment who blasphemously called Him a "sinner" (see Did Jesus Break The Law?).
19:47 And he taught daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the Scribes and the chief of the people sought to destroy him
"19:45 And he went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought; 19:46 Saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of thieves.
19:47 And he taught daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the scribes and the chief of the people sought to destroy him, 19:48 And could not find what they might do: for all the people were very attentive to hear him." (Luke 19:45-48 KJV)
Luke Chapter 20
The Sanhedrin, with their Doctorates Of Error, looked down upon the mere working man from Galilee. They asked, "by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?" Knowing that they wouldn't accept or respect His answer regardless of what He said (their contempt for the Truth that He preached was obvious proof of that), Christ merely asked them what authority they had to make their traditions the "law" of God.
"20:1 And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders, 20:2 And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
20:3 And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:
20:4 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
20:5 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not? 20:6 But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.
20:7 And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was.
20:8 And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things." (Luke 20:1-8 KJV)
The parable of the tenants' "20:18 Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder" (Luke 20:18 KJV) is also spoken of by the prophet Daniel, in another way: "2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth" (Daniel 2:35 KJV; see also Nebuchadnezzar's Dream).
"20:9 Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen [see Husbandman], and went into a far country for a long time. 20:10 And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty. 20:11 And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 20:12 And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
20:13 Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.
20:14 But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours. 20:15 So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him.
What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them? 20:16 He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others.
And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.
20:17 And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected [see also I Did It My Way], the same is become the head of the corner?
20:18 Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
20:19 And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them." (Luke 20:9-19 KJV)
The illustration shows two different denarius ("penny" as translated in the King James) coins with both of the Roman emperors who reigned during the time of Jesus, Caesar Augustus and Tiberius Caesar (see also New Testament Roman Emperors). A coin identical to one or the other of those was the subject of Jesus' well-known "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's":
"20:20 And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor [see also Tetrarch. 20:21 And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly: 20:22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
20:23 But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?
20:24 Show me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it?
They answered and said, Caesar's.
20:25 And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
20:26 And they could not take hold of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace." (Luke 20:20-26 KJV)
At the resurrection to spirit (see Resurrections), when humans will truly be "born again" (see Born Again, How and When?), all of God's children (see Children Of God) will have the same Father. There will be no marriage in The Kingdom of God because everyone will be a brother or sister to everyone else. The same principle provides also that, for example, in the Kingdom of God, a widow who remarried during her physical life will not have two husbands there (think of the problems that could cause), but two brothers. "20:35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage" (Luke 20:35 KJV).
"20:27 Then came to him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him, 20:28 Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 20:29 There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children. 20:30 And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
20:31 And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died. 20:32 Last of all the woman died also. 20:33 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
20:34 And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage: 20:35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: 20:36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection. 20:37 Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 20:38 For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.
20:39 Then certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said. 20:40 And after that they durst not ask him any question at all." (Luke 20:27-40 KJV)
The Christ was The Root and The Offspring of King David (see also Israelite Monarchy - The Origin, The Civil War and The United Kingdom).
"20:41 And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son? 20:42 And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
20:43 Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
20:44 David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?
20:45 Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples, 20:46 Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts; 20:47 Which devour widows' houses, and for a show make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation." (Luke 20:41-47 KJV)
Luke Chapter 21
The Beautiful Gate is most often identified as the passageway from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women, which, despite its name, permitted both (Israelite) men and women. The meaning of the term was actually that it was the courtyard of the Temple where women could also enter i.e. the Temple complex became more restrictive as one got closer to the Most Holy Place, from almost everyone permitted in the court of the Gentiles, then successively to Israelite men and women, then men, Levites, priests, to the High Priest. Adjacent to the women's court were chests where people could make offerings to support the operation of the Temple. Perhaps the most well-known reference to that is when Jesus Christ was there and witnessed the offering made by a poor, but very faithful, widow:
"21:1 And he looked up, and saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury.
21:2 And he saw also a certain poor widow casting in thither two mites. 21:3 And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more than they all: 21:4 For all these have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of God: but she of her penury hath cast in all the living that she had." (Luke 21:1-4 KJV)
When asked "when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass?" by His disciples, Christ provided very detailed information about the time of His return. The people who asked the question never saw it happen (other than the Fall of Jerusalem In 70 A.D. - see also Pella), but everyone in the end time will see it all.
"21:5 And as some spake of the temple, how it was adorned with goodly stones and gifts, he said, 21:6 As for these things which ye behold, the days will come, in the which there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
21:7 And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass?
21:8 And he said, Take heed that ye be not deceived: for many shall come in my name [see Many Antichrists?], saying, I am Christ; and the time draweth near: go ye not therefore after them. 21:9 But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions [see also Christ the Conqueror For Peace], be not terrified: for these things must first come to pass; but the end is not by and by.
21:10 Then said he unto them, Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:
21:11 And great Earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven.
21:12 But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's sake [see The Great Tribulation]. 21:13 And it shall turn to you for a testimony. 21:14 Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer: 21:15 For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist. 21:16 And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death.
21:17 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake. 21:18 But there shall not an hair of your head perish. 21:19 In your patience possess ye your souls.
21:20 And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies [see War With The Lamb], then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. 21:21 Then let them which are in Judaea [see Abomination of Desolation - Where?] flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. 21:22 For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. 21:23 But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.
21:25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; 21:26 Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. 21:27 And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory [see Behold, He Cometh With Clouds]. 21:28 And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh [see To Meet The Lord In The Air].
21:29 And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees; 21:30 When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand.
21:31 So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand.
21:32 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled.
21:33 Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.
21:34 And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.
21:35 For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth.
21:36 Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.
21:37 And in the day time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called the mount of Olives. 21:38 And all the people came early in the morning to him in the temple, for to hear him." (Luke 21:5-38 KJV)
Fact Finder: What is meant in prophecy by "the end of the world"?
See The End Of The World?