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Pashur, from the Hebrew name meaning freedom or released (an ironic name, since he imprisoned the people with his corruption, before the LORD had him taken away in the Babylonian captivity - see Why Babylon?) was a high-ranking Temple official in the time of the prophet Jeremiah's warnings to the religious leadership of Judah to repent of their turning their backs to the LORD.
A modern-day example of Jeremiah's experience with Pashur would be if someone who bases their Christianity on the actual word of God in the Holy Bible confronted a high-ranking official in a large Christian-professing "church" of this world, whether Roman Catholic or "Protestant" (it matters little - their core doctrines are the same; listen to the Sermon Is The True Church of God 'Protestant'? from our Sermons page) who bases their humanist "Christianity" primarily on the doctrines of man (see I Did It My Way). They will almost always scorn the plain truth of the Holy Bible just as Pashur did.
"Now Pashur the son of Immer the priest, who was also chief governor in the house of the LORD, heard that Jeremiah prophesied these things"
After Jeremiah delivered the LORD's warning, Pashur had Jeremiah beaten and bound in the stocks near the Temple - convenient to Jeremiah, because even in chains he could still be heard from there. When he had Jeremiah brought out to see if he had "repented" of the truth that he preached, Jeremiah delivered another prophecy from the LORD, this time including a personal one for Pashur - his name would be changed from Pashur, meaning "freedom," to Magormissabib, meaning terror on every side.
"20:1 Now Pashur the son of Immer the priest, who was also chief governor in the house of the LORD, heard that Jeremiah prophesied these things. 20:2 Then Pashur smote Jeremiah the prophet, and put him in the Stocks that were in the high gate of Benjamin, which was by the house of the LORD.
Jeremiah was later even accused of being a subversive because he warned them that they would fall to their enemies as a punishment from the LORD if they did not repent. Jeremiah was dropped into a muddy cistern for some time, before being put back into the prison. Ironically, Jeremiah may well have been held in one of the cisterns that the LORD provided, ready-made, for His people when they entered the promised land, if they obeyed Him: "6:10 And it shall be, when the LORD thy God shall have brought thee into the land which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great and goodly cities, which thou buildedst not, 6:11 And houses full of all good things, which thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou diggedst not, vineyards and olive trees, which thou plantedst not; when thou shalt have eaten and be full" (Deuteronomy 6:10-11 KJV).
"38:1 Then Shephatiah the son of Mattan, and Gedaliah the son of Pashur, and Jucal the son of Shelemiah, and Pashur the son of Malchiah, heard the words that Jeremiah had spoken unto all the people, saying, 38:2 Thus saith the LORD, He that remaineth in this city shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence: but he that goeth forth to the Chaldeans shall live; for he shall have his life for a prey, and shall live. 38:3 Thus saith the LORD, This city shall surely be given into the hand of the king of Babylon's army, which shall take it.