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The Apostles To Israel
When the Twelve graduated from being disciples ("disciple" means student, or more specifically, someone who chooses to be taught by a particular or specific teacher) to apostles, they were committed by Jesus Christ to do what the word "apostle" means - someone who is sent with a message or purpose. Notice that they were called "disciples" in these verses until Christ sent them out as "apostles."
"10:1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out [see Casting Out Demons], and to heal [see Healing] all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.
"Go not into the way of the Gentiles .... But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel"
The Twelve were sent to Israelites, at home or abroad, not to the gentile nations (that would be the given responsibility of the apostle Paul and those associated with him - see The Acts Of Peter And Paul).
"10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10:7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. 10:8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give. 10:9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, 10:10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves: for the workman is worthy of his meat.
The Messiah warned of tribulation for those who preached the Gospel, not only centuries ago, but "till the Son of man be come."
"10:21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10:22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake [see The Great Tribulation]: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved. 10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come." (Matthew 10:21-23 KJV)
The apostles were to never forget that they became apostles because they were once disciples, students, of the Master that they thereafter served. That was the sole and entire purpose of their "education." They were to hold to His Word, not drift away by means of their own. Those who held to the Truth would face man's wrath; those who fell away from the Truth will face the LORD's wrath.
"10:24 The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub [see Baal-zebub and Beelzebub], how much more shall they call them of his household?
The ability to understand and then accept the Truth depends upon the coming of the Holy Spirit, the Light of God's Word. That time comes sooner for some, later for most (see When Will You Be Judged?). Until then, division will happen between those who have the Light and those who as-yet remain in the dark (as has always been the case, the deadliest threat will come from those who are in the dark, but who think that they are in the light i.e. "the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service" John 16:2 KJV).
"10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. 10:35 For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law. 10:36 And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.
Fact Finder: What is meant by "go the extra mile"?