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His parents were the first humans to take something that did not belong to them. It's hardly surprising then that Cain continued Adam and Eve's example (see also Created Equal) by also taking something that did not belong to him - the life of his brother Abel.
"4:8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." (Genesis 4:8 KJV)
To top it off, Cain then became the first human liar. He lied to his Creator, "the LORD God" (see Christ The Creator and 'Before Abraham Was, I AM' to understand, directly from the Scriptures, that "the LORD God" was Jesus Christ).
"4:9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother?
"They have gone in the way of Cain"
As the penalty for his crime of murder, Cain was exiled even further from the Garden of Eden than his parents had been. Cain was sentenced to live with the misery of his behavior ("And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear"), as well as living with the feeling of being hunted ("I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me"), just he did to his brother - but under the LORD's protection, never quite reaching the point of being killed. This was accomplished by the "mark of Cain" so that anyone who came in for the kill would see that he was not to be killed (in the ancient world, killing was always "up close and personal").
"4:10 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. 4:11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; 4:12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.
Cain survived the "living hell" that he was justly sentenced to, while establishing cities, which became nations, which became the world as it is.
"4:16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
Cain's world was later interrupted by the Flood, but it again took root in humanity - as attested by this New Testament reference to "the way of Cain."
"1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
Fact Finder: Where did Cain (as well as the other sons that Adam and Eve later had) find women to marry?