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Are Levites 'Jews'?
"21:1 And the LORD [see 'Before Abraham Was, I AM'] visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. 21:2 For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. 21:3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. 21:4 And Abraham circumcised [see Circumcision] his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him." (Genesis 21:1-4 KJV)
Isaac had a son named Jacob (Jacob had a fraternal, definitely not identical, twin brother named Esau; see Why Did Esau Lose The Blessing?).
"25:21 And Isaac entreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren: and the LORD was entreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived. 25:22 And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD. 25:23 And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.
The LORD changed Jacob's name to "Israel" (notice that the name change occurred after almost all of Jacob's twelve sons and one daughter were born to him; they were up to then children of Jacob, or "Jacobites," not children of Israel, or "Israelites"; see The Origin Of 'Israel').
"32:22 And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two womenservants, and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford Jabbok [see The Jabbok River]. 32:23 And he took them, and sent them over the brook, and sent over that he had. 32:24 And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. 32:25 And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him. 32:26 And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh.
"Levi and Judah"
Jacob, who the LORD renamed as "Israel," had twelve sons and one daughter from his two wives (Rachel and Leah, who were sisters - and first-cousins of Jacob) and two concubines (Bilhah and Zilpah, who were servants of Rachel and Leah). All but the youngest child, Benjamin, were born while Jacob was living with his uncle Laban, in what is today Syria (see Jacob and Laban, Jacob's Ringstreaked, Speckled And Spotted and Jacob And Laban's Witness Heap; also The Syrian Tongue Of Jesus).
Leah (pronounced in Hebrew, lay-ah) was the mother of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Israel's only recorded daughter, Dinah.
"29:32 And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me.
Zilpah, Leah's servant (it was Leah's idea that Jacob have children with her i.e. Genesis 30:9) was the mother of Gad and Asher.
"30:9 When Leah saw that she had left bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife. 30:10 And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a son. 30:11 And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad.
Bilhah, Rachel's maid (it was Rachel's idea that Jacob have children with her i.e. Genesis 30:3-6) was the mother of Dan and Naphtali.
"30:1 And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and said unto Jacob, Give me children, or else I die.
Rachel (see Rachel Of Padanaram) was the mother of Joseph, and Benjamin - who was the only one of Jacob's children to be born in what later became known as the land of Israel. Tragically, Rachel died, near Bethlehem, giving birth to Benjamin.
"30:22 And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb. 30:23 And she conceived, and bare a son; and said, God hath taken away my reproach: 30:24 And she called his name Joseph [see Joseph, Prime Minister Of Egypt]; and said, The LORD shall add to me another son." (Genesis 30:22-24 KJV)
From Jacob / Israel's sons came the tribes of Israel - each named after their progenitor e.g. the tribe of Judah was named after Israel's son Judah ("Jude" and "Jew" are abbreviations of Judah's name), the tribe of Levi was named after Israel's son Levi etc. (see Numbers chapter 1). As the assigned priesthood, the Levites were set apart from the other tribes and were not to be counted among them i.e. "thou shalt not number the tribe of Levi, neither take the sum of them among the children of Israel."
"1:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of the congregation, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying, 1:2 Take ye the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, after their families, by the house of their fathers, with the number of their names, every male by their polls" (Numbers 1:1-2 KJV)
People of the twelve tribes always maintained their own tribal identity. Each of the twelve tribes were given their own tribal lands in the land of Israel, with the exception of the Levites, who were assigned the priesthood by the LORD, were distributed throughout the tribal lands of the other tribes (Joshua chapter 21; see map above) - but nevertheless maintained their tribal identity e.g. Levites who lived in the tribal land of Reuben called themselves Levites, not Reubenites; Levites who lived in the tribal land of Judah called themselves Levites, not Jews etc.
"21:41 All the cities of the Levites within the possession of the children of Israel were forty and eight cities with their suburbs." (Joshua 21:41 KJV)
Fact Finder: (a) After The Division Of Israel into "Israel" (see The Northern Kingdom) and "Judah" (see The Southern Kingdom) how did the Levites, who were distributed in towns and lands throughout the entire land of Israel, become concentrated in the southern kingdom of Judah? (b) How did the religious beliefs and practices of the Levites in Judah change from what was originally given to them by the LORD? How did much of "the law of Moses" become the "traditions of men"? Why is it that Moses (who, by the way, was a Levite just as much as his brother Aaron, Exodus 2:1-2,10; so too was John the Baptist centuries later, Luke 1:5,57-60) wouldn't recognize much of what has become the religion of the people of Judah?