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Sunday, July 22 2012

Israel In History and Prophecy: Joshua

Studies in this complete series of Israel In History and Prophecy:
1. Roots and Branches 2. Jacob's Family 3. Moses 4. The Exodus 5. Passover
6. Law Of The LORD 7. The Sinai Journey 8. Joshua 9. The Judges 10. Samuel
11. Saul and David 12. The Civil War 13. Jerusalem 14. Zion 15. King David
16. Solomon 17. The Tabernacle 18. The Temple 19. Israel and Judah 20. The Lost Ten Tribes
21. Kingdom Of Judah 22. Back To Babylon 23. The Prophets 24. Babylon and Persia 25. The Return Of Judah
26. Jews 27. Judaism 28. Purim 29. Hanukkah 30. Hasmonean Judea
31. Roman Judea 32. Herod 33. The Messiah 34. The Zealots 35. Aelia Capitolina
36. Rome and Islam 37. Balfour Declaration 38. Israel Of Judah 39. The New Covenant 40. Alpha and Omega


Moses and Joshua

Joshua was an Israelite, born in Egypt (see Why Did They Go To Goshen?) about twenty years before the Exodus. While there is no Biblical mention of him being a "stone cutter," as he is portrayed in the classic film The Ten Commandments (produced by Cecil B. DeMille in 1956), from what is recorded about him in the Scriptures, Joshua was without doubt a physically and psychologically strong young man.

Joshua was of the tribe of Ephraim, which likely made his appearance much more Egyptian than those of the other tribes whose ancestry originated entirely from Babylonian/Syrian parents (see A Biography Of Abraham: The Genealogy Of Abram and The Syrian Marriage Wells). Ephraim and Manasseh's mother was an Egyptian (see Jacob's Blessing Of Ephraim And Manasseh).

The actual Hebrew name is usually rendered into English as "Joshua," however "Hoshea" or "Oshea" were also used, sometimes for the same verse - as shown here for Numbers 13:8 from the King James Version and the Revised Standard Version (the Revised Standard Version was based on the American Standard Version, which was based on the King James Version).

The Sinai Peninsula

"13:8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Oshea the son of Nun." (Numbers 13:8 KJV)

"13:8 from the tribe of E'phraim, Hoshe'a the son of Nun" (Numbers 13:8 RSV)

The LORD was the King. Moses was, in effect, the Prime Minister. Joshua was, in effect, the Minister of Defense - until the day came that Joshua succeeded Moses, thereby becoming both (see the Fact Finder question below).

"17:8 Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

17:9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek [see also Who Has A Spirit Of Confrontation?]: to morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand.

17:10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

17:11 And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.

17:12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.

17:13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword." (Exodus 17:8-13 KJV)

Joshua remained very close to Moses when Moses met with the LORD atop Mount Sinai (see also Paul's Geography Lesson to understand why Paul said that Mount Sinai was in "Arabia").

"24:13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God [see also Mountains Of The Messiah]. 24:14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come unto them." (Exodus 24:13-14 KJV)

Joshua was with Moses when they came down, together, from atop Mount Sinai with the Ten Commandments of the LORD (see Israel In History and Prophecy: Law Of The LORD).

Joshua Captures Ai

"32:15 And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written [see Turning The Tables]. 32:16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.

32:17 And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp. 32:18 And he said, It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome: but the noise of them that sing do I hear [see The First Rock Star and The Mount Sinai Riot].

32:19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount [see The Stones Of Mount Sinai]. 32:20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strowed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it." (Joshua 32:15-20 KJV)

After the Ten Commandments were given to the Israelites (Exodus chapter 20), but before the finished Tabernacle was set up within the center of the camp, and the Levite priesthood became operational with it (Exodus chapters 39-40), the "Tent of Meeting" (a term that was also used for the later Tabernacle) was set up by Moses outside the camp (Exodus chapter 33). Moses and Joshua occupied and served the LORD in that "Tent of Meeting."

"33:7 And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the congregation. And it came to pass, that every one which sought the LORD [see Who Is The LORD?] went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp.

33:8 And it came to pass, when Moses went out unto the tabernacle, that all the people rose up, and stood every man at his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the tabernacle.

33:9 And it came to pass, as Moses entered into the tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door of the tabernacle, and the LORD talked with Moses. 33:10 And all the people saw the cloudy pillar stand at the tabernacle door: and all the people rose up and worshipped, every man in his tent door.

33:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend.

And he turned again into the camp: but his servant Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the tabernacle." (Exodus 33:7-11 KJV)

The Sinai journey of the Israelites was not intended to take forty years. It happened because the Israelites rebelled against the command of the LORD to enter the Gift that He was giving them. Joshua was one of the two scouts (Caleb was the only other) who remained faithful and courageous in the service of the LORD.

Joshua and The Five Kings

"14:1 And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept that night. 14:2 And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron: and the whole congregation said unto them, Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would God we had died in this wilderness! 14:3 And wherefore hath the LORD brought us unto this land, to fall by the sword, that our wives and our children should be a prey? were it not better for us to return into Egypt? 14:4 And they said one to another, Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt.

14:5 Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation [see The Church In The Wilderness] of the children of Israel. 14:6 And Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that searched the land, rent their clothes: 14:7 And they spake unto all the company of the children of Israel, saying, The land, which we passed through to search it, is an exceeding good land. 14:8 If the LORD delight in us, then he will bring us into this land, and give it us; a land which floweth with milk and honey [see Israel In History and Prophecy: The Exodus and Israel In History and Prophecy: The Sinai Journey]. 14:9 Only rebel not ye against the LORD, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us: their defence is departed from them, and the LORD is with us: fear them not.

14:10 But all the congregation bade stone them with stones. And the glory of the LORD appeared in the tabernacle of the congregation before all the children of Israel." (Numbers 14:1-10 KJV)

Notice that the census that was done prior to the Israelite entry into the Promised land forty years later "was not a man of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest numbered, when they numbered the children of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai" - the adult rebels had been left to wander and die in the wilderness.

"26:63 These are they that were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest [see The Origin Of The Levite Priesthood and the Fact Finder question below], who numbered the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho. 26:64 But among these there was not a man of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest numbered, when they numbered the children of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 26:65 For the LORD had said of them, They shall surely die in the wilderness [see A Journey Without A Destination]. And there was not left a man of them, save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nun." (Numbers 26:63-65 KJV)

The succession of Joshua was done in a peaceful, orderly manner. Their King, Who was the LORD, had not changed, and never dies, but His servants are replaced in their due time. Contrary to the arrogant, Satanic fantasy that a certain military organization spews today, no one has "over run the Garden of Eden" or the sovereignty of the LORD - and unless they, and all of those like them in this ungodly world, repent of their pathetic delusions of themselves, they are going to know the Wrath of the LORD, that is going to make them scream for mercy e.g. "6:15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; 6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: 6:17 For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?" (Revelation 6:15-17 KJV; see also The Coming World Dictator and What Is The Day Of The LORD?).

"27:18 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit [see also Who Has A Spirit Of Confrontation? and The Healing Spirit], and lay thine hand upon him; 27:19 And set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight. 27:20 And thou shalt put some of thine honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient. 27:21 And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before the LORD: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.

27:22 And Moses did as the LORD commanded him: and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation: 27:23 And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses." (Numbers 27:18-23 KJV)

Moses had served the LORD for forty years; Moses knew how shallow the Israelites were in their faithfulness to the LORD. Joshua experienced it during his time too. The LORD even warned Joshua that it was repeatedly going to happen: "this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them."

Moses Blessing Joshua

"31:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thy days approach that thou must die: call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tabernacle of the congregation [see also The Tabernacle Of God's Kingdom], that I may give him a charge. And Moses and Joshua went, and presented themselves in the tabernacle of the congregation.

31:15 And the LORD appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of a cloud: and the pillar of the cloud stood over the door of the tabernacle.

31:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers [see What Does The Bible Really Say About Your Soul?]; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.

31:17 Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide my face from them, and they shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles shall befall them; so that they will say in that day, Are not these evils come upon us, because our God is not among us? 31:18 And I will surely hide my face in that day for all the evils which they shall have wrought, in that they are turned unto other gods." (Deuteronomy 31:14-18 KJV)

Moses was then given his final look, in his physical life, of the Promised Land. He then died, east of the Jordan.

"34:1 And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, 34:2 And all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh [see Why East And West Manasseh? to understand that Moses, although he didn't cross the Jordan River, was nevertheless in Israelite tribal territory when he died], and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, 34:3 And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar. 34:4 And the LORD said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.

34:5 So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD. 34:6 And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day. 34:7 And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated. 34:8 And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days: so the days of weeping and mourning for Moses were ended.

34:9 And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses." (Numbers 34:1-9 KJV)

Into The Promised Land

The Ark Crossing The Jordan

As with the crossing of the sea at the time of the Exodus, the crossing of the Jordan River also involved a parting, a Way that the Way provided for the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

"3:1 And Joshua rose early in the morning; and they removed from Shittim, and came to Jordan, he and all the children of Israel, and lodged there before they passed over. 3:2 And it came to pass after three days, that the officers went through the host; 3:3 And they commanded the people, saying, When ye see the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, and the priests the Levites bearing it, then ye shall remove from your place, and go after it. 3:4 Yet there shall be a space between you and it, about two thousand cubits by measure: come not near unto it, that ye may know the way by which ye must go: for ye have not passed this way heretofore.

3:5 And Joshua said unto the people, Sanctify yourselves: for tomorrow the LORD will do wonders among you [see The Jordan Crossing].

3:6 And Joshua spake unto the priests, saying, Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass over before the people. And they took up the ark of the covenant, and went before the people.

3:7 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day will I begin to magnify thee in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee. 3:8 And thou shalt command the priests that bear the ark of the covenant, saying, When ye are come to the brink of the water of Jordan [see also Beyond Jordan], ye shall stand still in Jordan.

3:9 And Joshua said unto the children of Israel, Come hither, and hear the words of the LORD your God. 3:10 And Joshua said, Hereby ye shall know that the living God is among you, and that he will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Hivites, and the Perizzites, and the Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Jebusites [see A History Of Jerusalem: Jebus Of Canaan]. 3:11 Behold, the ark of the covenant of the LORD of all the earth passeth over before you into Jordan. 3:12 Now therefore take you twelve men out of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a man. 3:13 And it shall come to pass, as soon as the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of the LORD, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of Jordan shall be cut off from the waters that come down from above; and they shall stand upon an heap.

3:14 And it came to pass, when the people removed from their tents, to pass over Jordan, and the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people; 3:15 And as they that bare the ark were come unto Jordan, and the feet of the priests that bare the ark were dipped in the brim of the water, (for Jordan overfloweth all his banks all the time of harvest,) 3:16 That the waters which came down from above stood and rose up upon an heap very far from the city Adam, that is beside Zaretan: and those that came down toward the sea of the plain, even the salt sea [see also The Salt Sea In History And Prophecy], failed, and were cut off: and the people passed over right against Jericho. 3:17 And the priests that bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD stood firm on dry ground in the midst of Jordan, and all the Israelites passed over on dry ground, until all the people were passed clean over Jordan." (Joshua 3:1-17 KJV)

Approaching Jericho

The fall of Jericho is one of the most famous events of Bible history. It was Joshua's first effort as the battle commander that he had already been, as well as the leader of the nation (a people) - which was also about to become a country (a sovereign territory).

Map Of Jericho

"6:12 And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of the LORD. 6:13 And seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the LORD went on continually, and blew with the trumpets: and the armed men went before them; but the rereward came after the ark of the LORD, the priests going on, and blowing with the trumpets. 6:14 And the second day they compassed the city once, and returned into the camp: so they did six days [see The Gates Of Jericho].

6:15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times: only on that day they compassed the city seven times. 6:16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the LORD hath given you the city. 6:17 And the city shall be accursed, even it, and all that are therein, to the LORD: only Rahab the harlot shall live, she and all that are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent. 6:18 And ye, in any wise keep yourselves from the accursed thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed, when ye take of the accursed thing, and make the camp of Israel a curse, and trouble it. 6:19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are consecrated unto the LORD: they shall come into the treasury of the LORD.

6:20 So the people shouted when the priests blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city. 6:21 And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.

6:22 But Joshua had said unto the two men that had spied out the country, Go into the harlot's house, and bring out thence the woman, and all that she hath, as ye sware unto her. 6:23 And the young men that were spies went in, and brought out Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her brethren, and all that she had; and they brought out all her kindred, and left them without the camp of Israel.

6:24 And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD. 6:25 And Joshua saved Rahab the harlot alive, and her father's household, and all that she had; and she dwelleth in Israel even unto this day; because she hid the messengers, which Joshua sent to spy out Jericho." (Joshua 6:12-25 KJV)

Joshua then began an all-out war to take the land that had been deeded to Abraham's Messianic line centuries before (see A Biography Of Abraham: Isaac).

Tribal Map

"10:28 And that day Joshua took Makkedah, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain: and he did to the king of Makkedah as he did unto the king of Jericho.

10:29 Then Joshua passed from Makkedah, and all Israel with him, unto Libnah, and fought against Libnah: 10:30 And the LORD delivered it also, and the king thereof, into the hand of Israel; and he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls [see What Does The Bible Really Say About Your Soul?] that were therein; he let none remain in it; but did unto the king thereof as he did unto the king of Jericho.

10:31 And Joshua passed from Libnah, and all Israel with him, unto Lachish, and encamped against it, and fought against it: 10:32 And the LORD delivered Lachish into the hand of Israel, which took it on the second day, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein, according to all that he had done to Libnah. 10:33 Then Horam king of Gezer came up to help Lachish; and Joshua smote him and his people, until he had left him none remaining.

10:34 And from Lachish Joshua passed unto Eglon, and all Israel with him; and they encamped against it, and fought against it: 10:35 And they took it on that day, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein he utterly destroyed that day, according to all that he had done to Lachish.

10:36 And Joshua went up from Eglon, and all Israel with him, unto Hebron [see A Biography Of Abraham: Mamre in Hebron]; and they fought against it: 10:37 And they took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof, and all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining, according to all that he had done to Eglon; but destroyed it utterly, and all the souls that were therein.

10:38 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to Debir; and fought against it: 10:39 And he took it, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof; and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining: as he had done to Hebron, so he did to Debir, and to the king thereof; as he had done also to Libnah, and to her king.

10:40 So Joshua smote all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the LORD God of Israel commanded. 10:41 And Joshua smote them from Kadeshbarnea even unto Gaza, and all the country of Goshen, even unto Gibeon. 10:42 And all these kings and their land did Joshua take at one time, because the LORD God of Israel fought for Israel." (Joshua 10:28-42 KJV)

When the victory was in hand, the eastern tribes returned home (see Why East And West Manasseh?).

"22:1 Then Joshua called the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, 22:2 And said unto them, Ye have kept all that Moses the servant of the LORD commanded you, and have obeyed my voice in all that I commanded you: 22:3 Ye have not left your brethren these many days unto this day, but have kept the charge of the commandment of the LORD your God [see Who Is The LORD?]. 22:4 And now the LORD your God hath given rest unto your brethren, as he promised them: therefore now return ye, and get you unto your tents, and unto the land of your possession, which Moses the servant of the LORD gave you on the other side Jordan. 22:5 But take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law, which Moses the servant of the LORD charged you, to love the LORD your God, and to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments [see Israel In History and Prophecy: Law Of The LORD], and to cleave unto him, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul.

22:6 So Joshua blessed them, and sent them away: and they went unto their tents. 22:7 Now to the one half of the tribe of Manasseh Moses had given possession in Bashan: but unto the other half thereof gave Joshua among their brethren on this side Jordan westward. And when Joshua sent them away also unto their tents, then he blessed them, 22:8 And he spake unto them, saying, Return with much riches unto your tents, and with very much cattle, with silver, and with gold, and with brass, and with iron, and with very much raiment: divide the spoil of your enemies with your brethren.

22:9 And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh returned, and departed from the children of Israel out of Shiloh, which is in the land of Canaan, to go unto the country of Gilead, to the land of their possession, whereof they were possessed, according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Moses." (Joshua 22:1-9 KJV)

Satellite View Of Israel

The are very few people in the Bible who remained faithful and obedient to the LORD - and who made no major mistakes. Joshua was one of them. When his life's task had been completed, he died and was buried in the tribal territory of Ephraim, in central Israel. Joshua is today awaiting his resurrection and reward (see The Harvest Prophecies).

"24:28 So Joshua let the people depart, every man unto his inheritance.

24:29 And it came to pass after these things, that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the LORD, died, being an hundred and ten years old. 24:30 And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnathserah, which is in mount Ephraim, on the north side of the hill of Gaash.

24:31 And Israel served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had known all the works of the LORD, that he had done for Israel.

24:32 And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for an hundred pieces of silver: and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph [see Joseph, Prime Minister Of Egypt; also The Capitals Of Israel].

24:33 And Eleazar the son of Aaron died; and they buried him in a hill that pertained to Phinehas his son, which was given him in mount Ephraim." (Joshua 24:28-33 KJV)

Fact Finder: How and why did the succession of Moses and Aaron happen?
See From Moses And Aaron To Joshua and Eleazar


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This Day In History, July 22

838: The Battle of Anzen. Byzantine emperor Theophilos was defeated by the Abbasids.

1099: During the First Crusade (see Constantine's Crusades In History And Prophecy), Godfrey of Bouillon was proclaimed the first "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem" (see A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad).

1298: King Edward I used bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.

1456: The Siege of Belgrade during the Ottoman Wars in Europe. John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeated Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire.

1499: The Battle of Dornach. Swiss forces defeated the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I.

1515: The Congress of Vienna settled disputes between Poland and the Holy Roman Empire (which was actually German; see The Holy Roman Empire) and the succession to the Hungarian throne.

1587: A second group of English settlers arrived on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.

1620: A small congregation of English "Separatists," led by John Robinson, began their journey to the New World. Today, this historic group of religious refugees has come to be known as the "Pilgrims."

1691: The Anglo-Dutch army defeated the French at Aghrim, India.

1706: The Acts of Union were agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. The agreement led to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1739: Ottoman Turks (listen to our Sermon The Ottoman Empire) defeated troops of the Holy Roman Empire at Crocyka, Yugoslavia and threatened Belgrade.

1812: During the Napoleonic Wars (during the War of 1812-14 with the U.S., Britain was at the same time fighting a much larger war with Napoleon's French Empire in Europe), the Battle of Salamanca: British forces under the command of Arthur Wellesley defeated French the army near Salamanca, Spain.

1847: To escape religious persecution in the U.S., the first large group of Mormons entered the Salt Lake Valley, in what was still Mexican territory. Mormon leader Brigham Young founded Salt Lake City, Utah, soon after.

1934: "Public Enemy No. 1" criminal John Dillinger was shot and killed by FBI agents outside the Biograph Theater in Chicago.

1938: The Third Reich issued special identity cards for Jewish Germans (see Presidential Quotes On War, Terrorism, Religion).

1946: A "Zionist" (see A History Of Jerusalem: Zionism) terrorist organization, known as the Irgun, blew up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem that housed the British Army Headquarters (see A History Of Jerusalem: The British Mandate and A History Of Jerusalem: War And Peace to understand how the present-day state of "Israel" became an independent nation because Britain freed them from centuries of occupation by the Ottoman Empire). About 700 pounds of high explosives demolished one wing of the hotel, killing 91 people were - 41 Arabs, 28 British, 17 Jews and 5 other nationalities. Irgun leader Menachem Begin (a future Prime Minister of Israel who signed the Camp David Accord) later claimed that the homicides were not intended and that sufficient advance warning by telephone had been given.

1948: The people of Newfoundland (at the time, a British colony) voted in a referendum to join Canada.

1950: King Leopold III returned to Belgium after six years in exile.

1981: Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, was sentenced to life in prison for the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in May of that year.

1999: The cremated ashes of John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and his sister-in-law Lauren Bessette were scattered in the waters off Martha's Vineyard where their bodies had been recovered from the crash site the day before, 3 days after their plane, piloted by Kennedy, crashed into the ocean on July 16.





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