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Tuesday, March 4 2014
Judges 12: Shibboleth or Sibboleth?
"Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right"
Gilead was the name used for the region east of the Jordan River that was given to the Israelite tribes of Reuben, Gad and half of Manasseh (see the Fact Finder question below) in the time of Moses (Moses died and was buried there, as well; see Deuteronomy 33: Moses' Farewell Song and Blessing and Deuteronomy 34: The Passage Of Moses).
"3:12 And this land, which we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites. 3:13 And the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, being the kingdom of Og, gave I unto the half tribe of Manasseh; all the region of Argob, with all Bashan, which was called the land of giants." (Deuteronomy 3:12-13 KJV)"Shibboleth" is the English rendering of a Hebrew word that literally meant a head of grain, but was also later used as a term for a stream of water. It was in that later meaning that the word was used in the famous "Shibboleth" and "Sibboleth" incident at a ford of the Jordan River.
"12:1 And the men of Ephraim [see Joshua 16: Ephraim's Inheritance] gathered themselves together, and went northward, and said unto Jephthah, Wherefore passedst thou over to fight against the children of Ammon, and didst not call us to go with thee? we will burn thine house upon thee with fire.
After Jephthah came other Judges: "Ibzan of Bethlehem," "Elon, a Zebulonite" and " Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite."
"12:8 And after him Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel. 12:9 And he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters, whom he sent abroad, and took in thirty daughters from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel seven years. 12:10 Then died Ibzan, and was buried at Bethlehem.
Fact Finder: How and why did some of the Israelite tribes settle east of the Jordan River? Did they cross the Jordan River with Joshua and the other tribes? When did they cross back over the Jordan to return to their homelands
This Day In History, March 4
527: In Constantinople, a gravely ill Justin crowned his nephew Justinian as co-emperor.
1152: Frederick I Barbarossa was proclaimed King of the German tribes. Germany became "the Holy Roman Empire" (see The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).
1493: Christopher Columbus returned (aboard the Nina) to Lisbon, Portugal from his voyage to "America" (actually only the islands of the Caribbean; see the map at Thanksgiving In History and Prophecy).
1507: Future Protestant "reformer" (although, like nearly all of the Christian-professing world, Luther's doctrines never actually changed; he merely rejected the Papacy's leadership) Martin Luther, at age 21, was ordained a priest in the Roman Catholic church.
1519: Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico on a mission of conquest and plunder of the Aztec civilization.
1541: Ignatius of Loyola became the first superior-general of the Jesuits.
1581: England's Frances Drake and his crew completed the circumnavigation of the world.
1628: The Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal charter for English pioneers to build a civilization in the wilderness later to be known as "New England."
1665: King Charles II of England declared war on the Netherlands, thereby beginning the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
1675: John Flamsteed was appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England.
1681: King Charles II granted a land charter to English developer William Penn to create a civilization out of the wilderness area that would later be named after Penn - Pennsylvania (after completing his assigned task, Penn returned home and is buried in England).
1687: James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church, allowing for full liberty of worship in England. It allowed peaceable meetings of nonconformists and forgave all penalties for ecclesiastical offenses.
1791: The British House of Commons introduced the Constitutional Act which defined Upper and Lower Canada - geographic terms based merely upon the flow of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean. "Upper" Canada was what is today southern Ontario and "Lower" Canada was what is today southern Quebec i.e. Upper Canada was upriver of Lower Canada.
1812: The former French territory of Orleans became a U.S. state, with the name Louisiana (named after the French King Louis).
1905: An earthquake in Kangra India, killed 375,000 people.
1918: During the First World War, the Battle of the Somme ended.
1936: The first flight of the airship Hindenburg was made in Germany.
1947: The Dunkirk Treaty of alliance was concluded between Britain and France. Its aim was to meet the danger of any new German aggression, while at the same time serving as a Western European grouping of nations to stand against further communist expansion. The formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) would follow.
1949: 12 nations - the U.S., Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Portugal - founded the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). West Germany, Greece, Turkey and Spain joined later.
1960: The French freighter La Coubre exploded in Havana, Cuba, killing 100 people.
1970: The French submarine Eurydice exploded underwater, the entire 57-man crew were lost.
1976: The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was formally dissolved. Direct rule of Northern Ireland by the British Parliament began.
1983 The first launch of the space shuttle Challenger. It was in service less than 3 years before exploding shortly after launch on January 28, 1986.
1986: The Soviet Vega 1 spacecraft began transmitting images of Halley's Comet, and the first images of its nucleus, back to Earth.
1991: Sheikh Saad Al-Abdallah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returned to his country after Iraq's invasion.
2009: The International Criminal Court issued a warrant for the arrest of Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity.