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Monday, August 1 2016
2 Corinthians 1: The Christians Of Achaia
"Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the Church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia"
"Achaia" was the designation of a territory in southern Greece, located immediately north of the Peloponnesus (the narrow isthmus that connects the southern section of Greece to the Greek mainland.). By the time of the Roman Empire (see the Fact Finder question below), the Romans applied the name to all of the Peloponnesus, plus the rest of the southern half of Greece, with Macedonia making up the northern half.
With Achaia's independence obliterated, it was designated as a Roman senatorial province, whose military governors were known as "proconsuls" (while governors of Roman imperial provinces were known as "procurators" e.g. Pontius Pilate in Judea). The major cities of Achaia are well-familiar to many in the modern-day world: Corinth, Sparta and Athens.
The Roman terminology was used by the apostle Paul in the opening of his second letter that, although delivered to the congregation at Corinth, was actually addressed to "all the saints which are in all Achaia."
"1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:
Notice carefully how Paul's preaching and attitude toward the world was very different than the twelve apostles who were sent to the tribes of Israel. It was a necessary difference, but one that made Paul a citizen of the world, just as all humans will be when all is completed in the Kingdom of God (see The Only Political Party That's Going To Survive and Paul, The Apostle To The World). Paul wasn't a petty nationalist.
"1:12 For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward. 1:13 For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end; 1:14 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.
Fact Finder: When did the last fragment of the former Greek Empire (see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids) fall to the then-rising Roman Empire?
This Day In History, August 1
30 BC: Octavian (later known as Augustus, as he is also recorded in the Holy Bible as the Roman Emperor who called for the famous census that resulted in the Messiah being born in Bethlehem, as prophesied; see Bethlehem In History And Prophecy and A History Of Jerusalem: Pompey And The Caesars) took control of Alexandria, Egypt from the Ptolemies (see A History Of Jerusalem: Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids and The Cleopatra Connection). The Roman calendar month of August was named after Octavian / Caesar Augustus (see The Months Of Julius and Augustus).
69: The Batavian Rebellion. Batavians, in what is known today as the Netherlands, rebelled against Roman occupation of their homeland (see Pax Romana: The Birth Of The Roman Empire).
527: Justinian I became the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.
1096: The Crusaders (see Constantine's Crusades In History And Prophecy) under the command of Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople.
1137: King Louis VI of France died and was succeeded by his son Louis VII, who launched the disastrous Second Crusade.
1192: Crusaders under Richard the Lionheart landed at Jaffa (see also The Joppa Lessons Of Jonah And Peter) where they defeated the forces of Saladin (see A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad and A Biography Of Abraham: Abrahamic Religions).
1291: The three cantons of Uri, Unterwalden and Schwyz formed the Everlasting League, a confederation from which Switzerland was formed.
1498: Christopher Columbus became the first European to "discover" what is now Venezuela. The four voyages of Columbus were actually to the islands of the Caribbean Sea, with a few landfalls on South America (for a map of the four voyages of Columbus, see Thanksgiving In History and Prophecy).
1534: French explorer Jacques Cartier sighted the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Sent by King Francois I to look for gold in the New World and a passage to China, Cartier left France on April 20 1534 with 2 ships and 61 men, arriving off Newfoundland 20 days later. Before heading home on August 15, he claimed what is today Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the adjacent lands for France.
1664: The Ottoman / Turkish army battled French and German forces at St. Gotthard, Hungary (listen to our Sermon The Ottoman Empire).
1714: Anne, Queen of Britain 1702-1714, died at age 49. She was the last Stuart monarch. Although her father King James II was a Roman Catholic, she was raised as a Protestant at the insistence of her uncle Charles II. She was pregnant 18 times between 1683-1700, but none survived infancy.
1714: George Louis, Elector of Hanover, was named King George I of Great Britain upon the death of Queen Anne.
1740: Thomas Arne's Rule Britannia was performed in public for the first time.
1759: British and Hanoverian armies versus the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany.
1774: Joseph Priestley, the British Presbyterian minister and chemist, identified a gas which he called "dephlogisticated air" - later known as oxygen.
1778: The world's first "savings bank" was opened, in Hamburg, Germany.
1793: France became the first country to use the Metric System of weights and measures, a byproduct of the French Revolution. Today, nearly the entire world (with the sole exception of the U.S. which uses it only to a limited degree, in science and medicine) uses the Metric System. While many regard the "miles and Fahrenheit" system to be an entirely-English creation, miles were actually invented by the ancient Romans and the Fahrenheit temperature scale was invented in 1724 by a German physicist, Daniel Fahrenheit. "Miles and Fahrenheit" are just as European in origin as the Metric System. Even the word "mile" uses the same prefix, "mill," meaning thousand, as the Metric System.
1798: The British fleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile, thwarting Napoleon's conquest of the Middle East.
1800: The Act of Union 1800 was passed. It merged the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1834: The Slavery Abolition Act abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. An estimated 770,280 men and women became free, leaving only those in the U.S. as slaves (until the end of the U.S. Civil War about 30 years later).
1914: Germany declared war on Russia in at the start of the First World War (listen to our Sermon The European World Wars).
1950: King Leopold III of Belgium abdicated in favor of Prince Baudouin, effective July 1951.
1954: The Geneva Accords divided Vietnam into 2 countries at the 17th parallel.
1957: The U.S. and Canada formed the North American Air Defense Command, NORAD. For Canadians, the Russian threat during the Cold War wasn't somewhere "over there" in Europe - Canada has the U.S. on its southern border and Russia on its northern border. Canadians don't have to leave home to confront the Russian army.
1964: The Belgian Congo was renamed the Republic of the Congo.
1990: Iraq's president Saddam Hussein sent an invasion force of 100,000 troops into Kuwait, setting off the "Desert Storm" Kuwait War.
2001: Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore installed a Ten Commandments monument in the Judiciary Building. It resulted in a lawsuit to have the Ten Commandments (see also Israel In History and Prophecy: Law Of The LORD) removed and Justice Moore's removal from office. The Ten Commandments were actually written on both sides of the tables of stone; if they were publicly displayed, they would have to be placed so that people could walk around them, to read both sides (see Turning The Tables).