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Wednesday, April 5 2017
The Roman Empire
The Roman / Western Roman Empire (about 27 BC to 450 AD) existed for a little over four centuries, from the time of the birth of the Messiah - which was about the same duration as the Roman Republic (about 509 BC to 27 BC) in the centuries before it (see The Roman Republic). Rome's military-based empire was typical of many, but not all (e.g. the empires of Greece and Britain were based more upon commerce and building civilizations than mere aggression and ignorance/arrogance) empires before and after it.
"Pax Romana," from the Latin words meaning Roman peace, was a term used by the Romans whereby they arbitrarily imprisoned or killed anyone who didn't surrender their sovereignty to them i.e. those who defended their country from Roman invasion and interference were regarded, by the Romans, as being aggressive to the Romans. The Messiah was Crucified under "Pax Romana."
The first Roman Emperor was Octavian, who was later entitled Caesar Augustus - the reason that his regime was sometimes called Pax Augusta - the peace of Augustus. A sculptured portrait of Augustus, from the time that he actually lived (63 BC - 14 AD) is shown in the photograph.
Augustus is recorded in the Holy Bible (see Holy Bible Reading Plan) because of his decree of the census that caused the Messiah to fulfill the prophecy that He would be born in Bethlehem (see A Biography Of Jesus Christ: How Long In Bethlehem?).
"2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. 2:2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) 2:3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.
"Herod the Great" was appointed by, and subject to, Augustus, during that time. Herod was the one who attempted to murder the newborn Messiah (see Escape From Herod and The Rachel's Children Prophecy).
"2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem [see Why Did The Magi Come?], 2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him." (Matthew 2:1-2 KJV)
Whether or not he actually intended it to be so, the regime of Julius Caesar was the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
Octavian was the grand-nephew of Julius Caesar ("Caesar" began as a family name, but later became a royal, and then an imperial, title - see The Politics Of Rome), but was adopted by Julius Caesar according to the terms of his will. When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, during the Roman Republic, right in the Roman Senate by Roman Senators themselves, it sealed the fate of the Roman Republic in the eyes of Octavian. At that point, Rome's most dangerous enemies were found right in their own government as it then existed. Their experiment with a republic was crumbling - and Octavian, the nephew of Rome's murdered "president," had as much reason to hate, as to fear, the treacherous political wolves and jackals of the Capital.
The Roman Republic, in name, continued on in the form of a "trinity" dictatorship. After the assassination of Julius Caesar, the relatively-young Octavian (he was smart enough to bide his time and learn all that he could before he attacked) joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in what was called the Second Triumvirate ("the Second Trinity"). When Octavian was ready, and the time was right, Lepidus was exiled. Marc Antony was then manipulated into the Battle of Actium - a "two birds with one stone" victory for Octavian - he rid himself of Antony and defeated the remnant of the Greek Empire of Alexander the Great in Egypt, which then was ruled by the famous Cleopatra, who had allied herself with Antony (see The Cleopatra Connection).
The Battle of Actium occurred on 2 September 31 BC in the Ionian Sea (located south of the Adriatic Sea, between southern Italy and southern Greece) near the city of Actium, Greece. Octavian's navy was commanded by Marcus Agrippa, while Antony's ships were in formation with those of Cleopatra. When it was over (both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide when they lost the battle), Octavian was the sole political and military ruler of Rome and all of its territory - plus, with the acquisition of Cleopatra's Egypt, the Roman Empire was born.
With no opposition powerful enough to stop him (Pax Romana wasn't based upon anyone agreeing to it - only being allowed to survive under it), Octavian proclaimed himself the Princeps (which means first citizen, but notice that he was clearly headed for royalty - the word "prince" is based on that Latin title). It was however the Roman Senate (what was left of it) that later declared Octavian the title of "Caesar" - in tribute to Julius Caesar, the man that their members had murdered right in their own democratic legislative chamber.
Caesar Augustus then established the imperial structure that would exist during the human lifetime of Jesus Christ (Augustus ruled at the birth and first half of the human lifetime of the Messiah). Augustus died on 19 August 14 AD - a Roman month named after him (the Roman month of July was named after "Julius" Caesar). "August" was originally called Sextilis, which means sixth, because it was the sixth month in the Roman calendar.
Coins of both Augustus and Tiberius were in common circulation during the ministry of Jesus Christ. It could have been either one that the Messiah spoke of when the Roman-subservient "religious authorities" (see Annas And Caiaphas; also What Was Holy About Herod's Temple? and Through The Eyes Of Josephus) attempted to get the Christ to make an "anti-Roman" statement.
"22:15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. 22:16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. 22:17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?
The accusers nevertheless falsely reported the Christ for making political statements against the "Pax Romana" Empire that Caesar Augustus had created.
"23:1 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. 23:2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
Fact Finder: What place does the ancient Roman Empire, and the antichrist "Christian" church that it created, hold in end-time prophecy?
This Day In History, April 5
1081: Alexios I Komnenos became the Byzantine emperor at Constantinople (the city named after the Roman Emperor Constantine; see Constantine's Crusades In History And Prophecy).
1242: The Russian forces repelled an invasion by the Teutonic Knights (see also The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).
1355: In Rome, Charles IV was crowned Holy Roman Emperor (see The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).
1513: Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian, King Henry VIII of England, King Ferdinand of Aragon (Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of King Henry VIII of England, was the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, who employed Christopher Columbus as an explorer) and Pope Leo X signed the Treaty of Mechlin, an alliance to invade France.
1621: The English merchant ship Mayflower (in service 1609 to 1624, a typical 15-year working life of such ships of that era) set sail on its return trip to England from the "New World" (see also The Pilgrims and Thanksgiving In History and Prophecy).
1710: The Statute of Anne was granted Royal Assent to establish the Copyright Law of the United Kingdom.
1795: The Treaty of Basel between France and Prussia was signed during the French Revolutionary War.
1843: Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong as a British crown colony.
1879: Chile declared war on Bolivia and Peru, thereby starting the War of the Pacific.
1896: The modern-day Olympic Games began, in Athens.
1900: Archaeologists in Knossos, Crete, discovered a large cache of clay tablets with hieroglyphic writing in a script they called Linear B.
1943: During the Second World War (1939-1945), a bungling U.S. warplane killed 900 civilians, including 209 children, when it bombed the Belgian town (Belgium was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany) of Mortsel, rather than the intended target, a Nazi-occupied factory over a kilometer away.
1951: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were sentenced to death for giving U.S. atomic secrets to Russia.
1955: Winston Churchill resigned as British Prime Minister. He was succeeded by Anthony Eden.
1974: The 110-story World Trade Center opened in New York.
1975: Chiang Kai-shek, Chinese military and political leader, died. He fled to Taiwan after his Nationalist forces lost the Chinese civil war against the communists under Mao Zedong in 1949.
1989: The Polish government legalized the Solidarity union, and allowed democracy in government.
2009: North Korea launched a nuclear-capable Kwangmyongsong-2 rocket that passed over Japan.