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Sunday, February 4 2018

Who Really Invented Windows?

"A window shalt thou make to the ark"

The English-language word "window" originated from the compounded Old English words, vindr, meaning wind, and auga, meaning eye. It referred to an opening in a structure through which someone inside could see outside, while providing a "wind hole" (i.e. a variant pronunciation of window) for ventilation for people and as a means of exhaust for heating or cooking fires.

The earliest windows were simple openings with no glass. They were however variously covered with moveable shutters or curtains that were either solid, or still permitted some light to enter.

Other materials were also used, ranging from thin hides, to paper (in the Far East) to cloth. Some coverings were also added, from fine mesh to keep out insects, to bars and grills to keep out animals and people.

The ancient Romans were the first-documented to use glass in windows, around the time of the birth of the Messiah (see also The Roman Emperors: Augustus and The Roman Emperors: Julius Caesar). The earliest glass was translucent, similar to the diffuse light effect produced by "frosted" glass of today, not transparent. Clear glass did not become common until about 1000 AD.

Window

"Window" is used to translate the Hebrew word, pronounced tsoh-har, that meant light, as in a hole that let in light. The earliest mention of a "window" in the Holy Scriptures was the LORD's design of the Ark i.e. "A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above." It would have provided light as well as vital air for the many creatures aboard the vessel.

"6:13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 6:14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.

6:15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

6:16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.

6:17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. 6:18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. 6:19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. 6:20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. 6:21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.

6:22 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he." (Genesis 6:13-22 KJV)

Raven

It was from that window of the Ark that Noah successively sent a raven and a dove to search for dry ground.

"8:6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:

8:7 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth." (Genesis 8:6-7 KJV)

Doves are "clean" birds (see What Makes Creatures Clean or Unclean?). Noah waited to send out the dove to see if it could find "clean" food (for the animals and for the humans - keeping in mind that humans at that point were still vegetarians) - meaning that there was no longer just carrion (of animals and humans) to be found.

"8:8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; 8:9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark." (Genesis 8:8-9 KJV)

At last, the dove found clean vegetable matter that had begun growing again after the waters had receded.

"8:10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;

8:11 And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.

8:12 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more." (Genesis 8:10-12 KJV)

Fact Finder: What happened when Eutychus fell asleep (a dual meaning, as it happened) in a window?
See Eutychus - Rising From The Sleep Of Death


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This Day In History, February 4

211: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York, England) during a campaign against the Caledonians. He was succeeded by his sons, Caracalla (reigned 211-217) and Geta (reigned 211). See also:

The Roman Emperors: Domitian
The Roman Emperors: Titus
The Roman Emperors: Vespasian
The Roman Emperors: Vitellius
The Roman Emperors: Otho
The Roman Emperors: Galba
The Roman Emperors: Nero
The Roman Emperors: Claudius
The Roman Emperors: Caligula
The Roman Emperors: Tiberius
The Roman Emperors: Augustus
The Roman Emperors: Julius Caesar

Roman Britain

634: The Battle of Dathin. Rashidun military forces under Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan defeated the "Christian" Arabs around Gaze (see also A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad, What Does The Bible Say About Arabs? and Gaze In History And Prophecy).

1169: A severe earthquake struck the coast of Sicily, causing tens of thousands of deaths and injuries.

1194: Richard I ("Richard Lion Heart") of England was freed from captivity in Germany where he had been held as the prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Heinreich ("Henry") VI (see The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).

1441: Pope Eugene IV published the encyclical Cantante domino. It proclaimed that the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church contains the 66 protocanonical books (i.e. the complete "Protestant" Bible) and 12 deuterocanonical ("apocryphal") books (see also Apocryphal Means Not Authoritative).

1783: An earthquake killed 50,000 people in Italy.

1783: England officially proclaimed an end to hostilities with the rebels in its New England colonies that Britain founded and built in the wilderness of north-eastern North America over a century earlier. Despite the propaganda myths, not all were liberal rebels however (see When Do Liberals Become Conservatives? and Why Are Politicians Called Left Or Right?; also What Did A Father Of Democracy Predict About It?).

The United Empire Loyalists were conservatives (honest, hard-working, successful people of all walks of life i.e. farmers, merchants, tradesmen, educators) who moved to Canada from the New England colonies because they saw no need for a rebellion and were brutally persecuted by rebel forces. Totaling about 40% of the population of the New England colonies, they were later known as United Empire Loyalists.
When the U.S. invaded Canada a few years later, in the War of 1812 (1812-1814), United Empire Loyalists and their adult children and grandchildren served among the British Army and Canadian militias that successfully defended Canada from more U.S. aggression and annexation ("The formal act of acquiring territory by conquest or occupation" - the publicly-stated goal of U.S. President James Madison when he started the war).

United Empire Loyalists

A plaque in Hamilton, Ontario (as well as many others across Canada) commemorates the United Empire Loyalists:

"This monument is dedicated to the lasting memory of

THE UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS

Who, after the Declaration of Independence, came into British North America from the seceded American colonies and who, with faith and fortitude, and under great pioneering difficulties, largely laid the foundations of this Canadian nation as an integral part of the British Empire.

Neither confiscation of their property, the pitiless persecution of them by their kinsmen in revolt, nor the galling chains of imprisonment could break their spirits, or divorce them from a loyalty almost without parallel.

No country ever had such founders --

No country in the world --

No, not since the days of Abraham."

1787: Shay's Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.

1797: An earthquake killed 40,000 people in Ecuador.

1859: The Codex Sinaiticus was discovered in Egypt.

1861: After some of his relatives were lynched, Chief Cochise began the 25 year Apache war with the US Army (see also The First Chinese American War).

1904: The Russo-Japanese War began when Japan laid siege to Port Arthur (see also Why Was Korea Divided Into North And South?).

1915: At the beginning of the First World War (1914-1918; see also The Assassination That Triggered Two World Wars), the first Canadian troops arrived in Europe and entered battle at Flanders. Among them was a Canadian Army doctor, John McCrae (1872-1918), who while serving on the front lines, wrote In Flanders Fields, a poem made famous after the war (McCrae did not survive the war and ironically became among those that he wrote about in his poem).

1945: A few months before the end of the Second World War (1939-1945), Winston Churchill of Britain, Franklin Roosevelt of the U.S. and Josef Stalin of Russia (see also Russia Or Europe - Who Has Been The Invader?) began meetings at the Soviet Black Sea port of Yalta; they agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender, to try its leaders as war criminals, and to share the occupation of Germany with France.

1997: A civil trial jury found O.J. Simpson liable for the murders of Nicole Brown/Simpson and Ronald Goldman.





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Copyright © Wayne Blank