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Sunday, February 4 2018
Who Really Invented Windows?
"A window shalt thou make to the ark"
The English-language word "window" originated from the compounded Old English words, vindr, meaning wind, and auga, meaning eye. It referred to an opening in a structure through which someone inside could see outside, while providing a "wind hole" (i.e. a variant pronunciation of window) for ventilation for people and as a means of exhaust for heating or cooking fires.
The earliest windows were simple openings with no glass. They were however variously covered with moveable shutters or curtains that were either solid, or still permitted some light to enter.
Other materials were also used, ranging from thin hides, to paper (in the Far East) to cloth. Some coverings were also added, from fine mesh to keep out insects, to bars and grills to keep out animals and people.
The ancient Romans were the first-documented to use glass in windows, around the time of the birth of the Messiah (see also The Roman Emperors: Augustus and The Roman Emperors: Julius Caesar). The earliest glass was translucent, similar to the diffuse light effect produced by "frosted" glass of today, not transparent. Clear glass did not become common until about 1000 AD.
"Window" is used to translate the Hebrew word, pronounced tsoh-har, that meant light, as in a hole that let in light. The earliest mention of a "window" in the Holy Scriptures was the LORD's design of the Ark i.e. "A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above." It would have provided light as well as vital air for the many creatures aboard the vessel.
"6:13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 6:14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.
It was from that window of the Ark that Noah successively sent a raven and a dove to search for dry ground.
"8:6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:
Doves are "clean" birds (see What Makes Creatures Clean or Unclean?). Noah waited to send out the dove to see if it could find "clean" food (for the animals and for the humans - keeping in mind that humans at that point were still vegetarians) - meaning that there was no longer just carrion (of animals and humans) to be found.
"8:8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; 8:9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark." (Genesis 8:8-9 KJV)
At last, the dove found clean vegetable matter that had begun growing again after the waters had receded.
"8:10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;
Fact Finder: What happened when Eutychus fell asleep (a dual meaning, as it happened) in a window?
This Day In History, February 4
211: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York, England) during a campaign against the Caledonians. He was succeeded by his sons, Caracalla (reigned 211-217) and Geta (reigned 211). See also:
The Roman Emperors: Domitian
634: The Battle of Dathin. Rashidun military forces under Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan defeated the "Christian" Arabs around Gaze (see also A History Of Jerusalem: Constantine and Muhammad, What Does The Bible Say About Arabs? and Gaze In History And Prophecy).
1169: A severe earthquake struck the coast of Sicily, causing tens of thousands of deaths and injuries.
1194: Richard I ("Richard Lion Heart") of England was freed from captivity in Germany where he had been held as the prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Heinreich ("Henry") VI (see The Holy Roman Empire Of The German Nation).
1441: Pope Eugene IV published the encyclical Cantante domino. It proclaimed that the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church contains the 66 protocanonical books (i.e. the complete "Protestant" Bible) and 12 deuterocanonical ("apocryphal") books (see also Apocryphal Means Not Authoritative).
1783: An earthquake killed 50,000 people in Italy.
1783: England officially proclaimed an end to hostilities with the rebels in its New England colonies that Britain founded and built in the wilderness of north-eastern North America over a century earlier. Despite the propaganda myths, not all were liberal rebels however (see When Do Liberals Become Conservatives? and Why Are Politicians Called Left Or Right?; also What Did A Father Of Democracy Predict About It?).
The United Empire Loyalists were conservatives (honest, hard-working, successful people of all walks of life i.e. farmers, merchants, tradesmen, educators) who moved to Canada from the New England colonies because they saw no need for a rebellion and were brutally persecuted by rebel forces. Totaling about 40% of the population of the New England colonies, they were later known as United Empire Loyalists.
A plaque in Hamilton, Ontario (as well as many others across Canada) commemorates the United Empire Loyalists:
"This monument is dedicated to the lasting memory of
1787: Shay's Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.
1797: An earthquake killed 40,000 people in Ecuador.
1859: The Codex Sinaiticus was discovered in Egypt.
1861: After some of his relatives were lynched, Chief Cochise began the 25 year Apache war with the US Army (see also The First Chinese American War).
1904: The Russo-Japanese War began when Japan laid siege to Port Arthur (see also Why Was Korea Divided Into North And South?).
1915: At the beginning of the First World War (1914-1918; see also The Assassination That Triggered Two World Wars), the first Canadian troops arrived in Europe and entered battle at Flanders. Among them was a Canadian Army doctor, John McCrae (1872-1918), who while serving on the front lines, wrote In Flanders Fields, a poem made famous after the war (McCrae did not survive the war and ironically became among those that he wrote about in his poem).
1945: A few months before the end of the Second World War (1939-1945), Winston Churchill of Britain, Franklin Roosevelt of the U.S. and Josef Stalin of Russia (see also Russia Or Europe - Who Has Been The Invader?) began meetings at the Soviet Black Sea port of Yalta; they agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender, to try its leaders as war criminals, and to share the occupation of Germany with France.
1997: A civil trial jury found O.J. Simpson liable for the murders of Nicole Brown/Simpson and Ronald Goldman.